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Filipino College Students’ Conception of Assessment

Filipino College Students’ Conception of Assessment

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Published by Carlo Magno
The study assessed Filipino college students’ conception of assessment using Brown’s (2008) framework. A Filipino version of the Student Conceptions of Assessment was constructed and the items were made for Filipino college students’ experience of assessment in higher education. There were 100 items that were initially constructed based on the definition of the factors in Brown’s Model VI framework. There were 200 Filipino college students who served as participants. Initially, a four-factor model was tested using the CFA. The model did not attained an adequate fit: χ2=13114.8, RMSEA = .08, GFI =.04 , AGFI =.04. Principal components analysis was conducted to explore the possible factor structure for the items since it did not fit the CFA. There was only one conception of assessment dimension with factor loadings of .50 obtained with 31 items. The model with one dimension was tested again using the CFA and the model attained an adequate fit: χ2 = 992.459, RMSEA = .07, GFI =.07, AGFI =.07, PGI=.85.
The study assessed Filipino college students’ conception of assessment using Brown’s (2008) framework. A Filipino version of the Student Conceptions of Assessment was constructed and the items were made for Filipino college students’ experience of assessment in higher education. There were 100 items that were initially constructed based on the definition of the factors in Brown’s Model VI framework. There were 200 Filipino college students who served as participants. Initially, a four-factor model was tested using the CFA. The model did not attained an adequate fit: χ2=13114.8, RMSEA = .08, GFI =.04 , AGFI =.04. Principal components analysis was conducted to explore the possible factor structure for the items since it did not fit the CFA. There was only one conception of assessment dimension with factor loadings of .50 obtained with 31 items. The model with one dimension was tested again using the CFA and the model attained an adequate fit: χ2 = 992.459, RMSEA = .07, GFI =.07, AGFI =.07, PGI=.85.

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34
The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment
 
December 2012, Vol. 12(1)
 
© 2012 Time Taylor Academic Journals
ISSN 2094-0734
Filipino College
Students’ Conception of Assessment
 
Randy Wilson C. Delfino
Emilio Aguinaldo College, Philippines 
Carlo Magno
De La Salle University, Manila 
Abstract
The study assessed
Filipino college students’
conception of assessment using 
Brown’s
(2008) framework. A Filipino version of the Student Conceptions of Assessment wasconstructed and the items were made for Filipino college students
experience of assessment in higher education. There were 100 items that were initially constructed basedon the definition of the factors in
Brown’s Model VI framework.
There were 200 Filipinocollege students who served as participants. Initially, a four-factor model was tested using the CFA. The model did not attained an adequate fit:
χ 
2
=13114.8, RMSEA = .08, GFI =.04, AGFI =.04
.
Principal components analysis was conducted to explore the possible factorstructure for the items since it did not fit the CFA. There was only one conception of assessment dimension with factor loadings of .50 obtained with 31 items. The model withone dimension was tested again using the CFA and the model attained an adequate fit 
χ 
2
=992.459, RMSEA = .07, GFI =.07, AGFI =.07, PGI=.85.
Keywords
: Student Conceptions of Assessment, Filipino college student conceptions of assessment 
Introduction
 Assessment is used for a number of purposes including individual certification,improvement in teaching, and feedback on the quality of learning (Peterson & Irving,2008). Each student has their own interpretation and idea on what assessment is. Brownand Hirschfeld (2008) defined conception as mental representations of phenomena inreality that explains complex and difficult categories of experience, such as assessment. Assessment is defined as any act of interpreting information about student performance,collected through any of multitude of means (Brown & Hirschfeld, 2008). Moreover,
students’ conceptions of educational processes are important because there is evidence that 
those conceptions have an impact on their educational experiences and learning (Brown &Hirschfeld, 2008). Pajares (1992) explained that 
teachers’ conceptions are p
roduct of theireducational experiences as students, suggesting strongly that similar conceptions might befound in both teachers and students.The present study made use of the framework of Brown (2008) on Student Conception of Assessment model VI. Brown (2004) star
ted with Teachers’ Conceptions o
 Assessment Inventory that is
used to determine teachers’ conception of assessment.
 
Teachers’ conception
of assessment can be understood in terms of their agreement anddisagreement with four purposes to which assessment may be put specifically, (a)improvement on teaching and learning, (b) school accountability, (c) student accountability,
 
35
The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment
 
December 2012, Vol. 12(1)
 
© 2012 Time Taylor Academic Journals
ISSN 2094-0734
and (d) treating assessment as irrelevant. In 2005 and 2006 two forms of the
Students’
Conceptions of Assessment inventory were administered to ascertain the structure andstrength of the student conceptions (Brown & Hirschfeld, 2005; Brown, 2006). Brown andHirschfeld (2005) indicated that students have three main conceptions about the uses of the assessments that they experience: (1) Assessment is something that students may beforced to participate in, but it is unfair, bad, or irrelevant to the students; (2) Assessment,including classroom assessment, acts to make the schools accountable; (3) Assessment, orat least some formats or procedures, may be beneficial, even enjoyable, inimproving thequality of student learning.Brown and Hirschfeld (2005) described that 29 statements were designed to load onfour purposes: (a) Assessment makes schools and students accountable, (b) Assessment improves teaching and learning, (c) Assessment is irrelevant or bad; (d) Assessment provides a valid description of performance. However, in the study of Brown (2006)students who agreed more that assessment made students accountable had higher reading achievement scores, whereas, those who agreed more that assessment was fun or could beignored, and that assessment made schools accountable had lower reading achievement scores.
For the next version of the Students’ Conception of Assessment, eight factors were
proposed.
The items and their intended factors for the Students’ Conception of 
 Assessment version IV (SCoA-IV) are as follows
:
(a) Assessment is bad, unfair, ignored;(b) Assessment is informative and formative; (c) Assessment is beneficial, fun; (d) Assessment makes schools accountable; (e) Assessment improves teaching; (f) Assessment predicts future; (g) Assessment helps me self-regulate; (h) Assessment makes studentsaccountable.The first two studies of Brown and Hirschfeld (2007) had large samples of students who did the short versions of the questionnaire which limited the range of conceptions thacould be investigated. Those two studies demonstrated that there were meaningful relationsbetween conceptions of assessment and academic performance. For example, the fourconceptions of assessment (assessment makes students accountable, assessment makesschools accountable, assessment is fun and assessment is ignored) were related to student achievement in reading. These results were seen consistently with self-regulation theory.Moreover, Brown, Irving, Peterson, and Hirschfeld (2007) studied secondary school-lev 
el students’
multiple and conflicting conceptions of assessment. Theseconceptions include: Assessment improves learning, assessment makes studentsaccountable, assessment is negative because it is unfair or bad, and assessment is likedbecause it is fun or beneficial. The Conceptions of Assessment-Version V (SCoA-V)inventory consisted of 45 statements related to various complementary and competing purposes of assessment.The items in this inventory have the same factors as to the previous version: (a) School Accountability; (b) Student Accountability; (c) Classroom Environment;(d) Personal Enjoyment; (e) Student Improvement; (f) Teacher improves learning; (g) Assessment is bad; (h) Assessment is ignored.The relationship of conceptions with practices that define assessment was furtherexamined. Brown, Irving, Peterson, and Hirschfeld (2007) explained that it should be
noted that students’ definitions of assessment may not be the same as
the actual practicesthey experience. Nevertheless, they provide a provisional insight into how beliefs structures
tudents’ experiences
. Student beliefs about assessment appear to vary according to thelevel of schooling they are enrolled in, with high school students being more negative about 
 
36
The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment
 
December 2012, Vol. 12(1)
 
© 2012 Time Taylor Academic Journals
ISSN 2094-0734
assessment. The Students Conceptions of Assessment version VI (SCoA-VI) inventory elicits attitudes towards four beliefs (Brown, 2008): (1) Assessment improves the teachersteaching and the students learning; (2) Assessment relates to external factors such as schoolquality or stude
nts’ future
; (3) Assessment has affective impact or benefit on individuals orclasses; (4) Assessment is irrelevant because it is unfair and ignored.Research using the Student Conceptions of Assessment inventory in New Zealandhas shown that the improvement in conception has an adaptive effect on performance inmathematics (Brown, Peterson, & Irving, 2009) and reading (Brown & Hirschfeld, 2008),consistent with self-regulation theories (Boekaerts & Corno, 2005; Zimmerman, 2008). Inother words, increased endorsement of these conceptions positively predicted increasedacademic performance.The Student Conception of Assessment (SCoA) of Brown was adapted in thepresent study that aimed to expand the usage of SCoA for Filipino College Student Conceptions of Assessment. The following factors of Brown and Hirschfeld (2008) are asfollows:1.
Student and school accountability
. Refer to the responses of students showing their self-worth and self-efficacy. This would also reflect their competence, and view assessment that makes them accountable for learning. School accountability refers on a positive response of students on their improvement in their performance in school. Quality of school and the effectiveness of the teacher are important feedback based on formalassessment that reflected a positive effect on the academic achievement of students.2.
Assessment is ignored
. Refers on how college students thought that assessment isbeing bad or unfair for them. They also thought that some forms of assessment arearbitrary, irrelevant, and inaccurate.3.
Personal enjoyment
. Refer on the attitude of college students as they seeassessment as fun, towards different types of assessment.4.
Teacher improves learning
. Refer to a belief that assessment helps teacher inassessing students learning and moreover improves student performance.5.
Student improvement
. Refers to how the students gain insights from the resultsof assessment that made the student improve their learning. This includes the use of feedback and or consultation with the teacher.The purpose of adapting the Student Conception of Assessment of Brown (2008)for Filipino college student is to determine if the factors will fit in the case of Filipinocollege students. In the Philippine setting, many teachers in higher education seeassessment as a separate dimension with instruction. The most common practice of teachers especially in higher education is that instruction and assessment are both given at separate times. The assessment that takes place is different with what transpired during instruction (Magno, 2010). This is strongly reflected in the National Competency BasedTeaching Standards (NCBTS) of the Department of Education in the Philippines. Theassessment component was not as important as the other dimensions (such as the socialregard for learners, learning environment, diversity of learners, curriculum, andprofessional development). The assessment was conceptualized as part of planning andreporting and not even as a separate domain. Assessment is usually neglected even whenimplementing educational programs (Magno, 2012). Assessment in the Philippine setting is

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