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The Predictive Validity of the Academic Self-Regulated Learning Scale

The Predictive Validity of the Academic Self-Regulated Learning Scale

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Published by Carlo Magno
The predictive validity of the Academic Self-regulated Learning Scale (A-SRL-S) was
determined using Grade Point Average (GPA) as the criterion. This prediction is
supported by the social cognitive framework where the use of such learning strategies
results to the improvement of students’ grades. Previous studies are also consistent in
establishing the notion that self-regulation strategies account largely on the increase of
students’ grades. The A-SRL-S was administered to 2052 Filipino college students from
five different private universities in the National Capital Region in the Philippines. The
results indicate that GPA was significantly related to each of the A-SRL-S factors. All the
factors of the A-SRL-S significantly predicted GPA using a path analysis. Specifically, the
memory strategies, goal setting, and self-evaluation largely increased the variance in
explaining GPA. The overall model also attained a good fit (2=6671.40, df=21, NFI=92.
RFI=.99, IFI=.92, TLI=.93, CFI=.92, and RMSEA=.03). Implications on learning and
teaching are discussed.
The predictive validity of the Academic Self-regulated Learning Scale (A-SRL-S) was
determined using Grade Point Average (GPA) as the criterion. This prediction is
supported by the social cognitive framework where the use of such learning strategies
results to the improvement of students’ grades. Previous studies are also consistent in
establishing the notion that self-regulation strategies account largely on the increase of
students’ grades. The A-SRL-S was administered to 2052 Filipino college students from
five different private universities in the National Capital Region in the Philippines. The
results indicate that GPA was significantly related to each of the A-SRL-S factors. All the
factors of the A-SRL-S significantly predicted GPA using a path analysis. Specifically, the
memory strategies, goal setting, and self-evaluation largely increased the variance in
explaining GPA. The overall model also attained a good fit (2=6671.40, df=21, NFI=92.
RFI=.99, IFI=.92, TLI=.93, CFI=.92, and RMSEA=.03). Implications on learning and
teaching are discussed.

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Published by: Carlo Magno on Jun 30, 2013
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48
The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment 
 
December 2011, Vol. 9(1)
© 2011 Time Taylor Academic Journals
ISSN 2094-0734
 
The Predictive Validity of the Academic Self-Regulated Learning Scale
Carlo Magno
De La Salle University, Manila 
Abstract
The predictive validity of the Academic Self-regulated Learning Scale (A-SRL-S) wasdetermined using Grade Point Average (GPA) as the criterion. This prediction issupported by the social cognitive framework where the use of such learning strategiesresult 
s to the improvement of students’ grades. Previous studies are also consistent in
establishing the notion that self-regulation strategies account largely on the increase of 
students’ grades. The A 
-SRL-S was administered to 2052 Filipino college students fromfive different private universities in the National Capital Region in the Philippines. Theresults indicate that GPA was significantly related to each of the A-SRL-S factors. All thefactors of the A-SRL-S significantly predicted GPA using a path analysis. Specifically, thememory strategies, goal setting, and self-evaluation largely increased the variance inexplaining GPA. The overall model also attained a good fit (
2
=6671.40, df=21, NFI=92.RFI=.99, IFI=.92, TLI=.93, CFI=.92, and RMSEA=.03). Implications on learning andteaching are discussed.Keywords: Academic Self-regulation, GPA, Predictive validity 
Introduction
The use of self-regulation strategy is deemed effective when it results to
students’ achievement such as increase in their grades.
Zimmerman (2002) notedthat several studies consistently showed self-regulatory processes lead to success inschool. Success in school as an outcome of self-regulation in several studies isindicated by 
students’ grades (
e. g., Kitsantas, Winsler, & Hui, 2008; Stumpf &Standley, 2002; Tuckman, 2003; Zwick & Sklar, 2005). The relationship betweenself-regulation and grades explains that performance in school assessed by courseoutcomes or final grades is achieved when students use a repertoire of self-regulation skills such as memory strategy, goal-setting, self-evaluation, seeking assistance, environmental structuring, learning responsibility, and planning andorganizing. The prediction of grades using self-regulation as a predictor is explainedby the social cognitive framework. The cognitive and behavioral dimensions involvethe use of self-regulation while the outcome is the academic achievement asmeasured by students Grade Point Average (GPA).
Academic Self-Regulation
Self-regulation in the present study is anchored in the originalconceptualization of Zimmerman (2000) as self-generated thoughts, feelings, andbehaviors that are oriented to attaining goals. These specific thoughts, feelings, andbehavior are specified in the studies of Zimmerman and Martinez Pons (1986,1988, 2002). Moreover, these factors were studied by Magno (2010a) using a sample of Filipino college students. Magno (2010a, 2011) found that these self-
 
49
The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment 
 
December 2011, Vol. 9(1)
© 2011 Time Taylor Academic Journals
ISSN 2094-0734
 
regulation strategies fall under seven factors namely memory strategy, goal-setting,self-evaluation, seeking assistance, environmental structuring, learning responsibility, and planning and organizing. These factors were initially exploredusing principal components analysis that explains 42.52% of the total variance andthe items had high factor loadings (loadings >.40). These seven factors were thenconfirmed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with adequate fit (
χ 
2
=332.07,df=1409, RMS=.07, RMSEA=.06, GFI=.91, NFI=.89). In a subsequent study, theseven factors of self-regulation were again confirmed. This time, the construct  validity was further established by correlating the scale with the Motivated Strategiesfor Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI). A CFA was structured and the three latent constructs (A-SRL-S, MSLQ,and LASSI) significantly correlated with adequate fit in a three factor model(
χ 
2
=473.47, df=87, RMSEA=.08, SRMR=.04, AIC=.71, SBC=.92, BCCVI=.71) ascompared to a one-factor and two factor models.
Self-Regulation and Grades
The relationship between self-regulation and grades showed to have highand consistent effect size as revealed in the metanalysis conducted by Dignath andButtner (2008). Using self-regulation as predictors of grades was further establishedby Kitstantas, Winsler, and Hui (2008). They explained that academic performanceis closely linked with individuals
level of self-regulation. They found that self-regulation and grades were significantly correlated. When they predicted gradesusing multiple regression, the addition of self-regulation in predicting gradesincreased the variance from 37% to 45%. As compared with other predictors in themodel (i. e., motivation, self-efficacy, and prior achievement), the entry of self-regulation in the prediction of GPA had the largest contribution.The contribution of self-regulation on grades was also investigated in past studies. For example, the study by Bell (2007) it was found that self-regulationcontributed the most (B=.32) among other predictors of GPA. There are also otherstudies that support the contribution of self-regulation on grades. The study by Hall, Smith, and Chia (2008) found that executive processes involved in self-regulation such as planning, effort expended, and metacognitive applications hasthe largest contribution in predicting GPA than interpersonal self-efficacy andacademic engagement. Consistent results were found in the study by Briley,Thomson, and Iran-Nejad (2009) where both dynamic and active self-regulationpredicted GPA accounting for 46.4% of the total variance in GPA as compared toother variances when GPA was predicted. Moroever, the study by Magno (2010b)also predicted students
grades and found that work method which includes self-regulation strategies had the highest contribution on grades on both mathematicsand English. Aside from non-experimental designs, the effect of self-regulation onperformance was assessed in some studies by training students some self-regulatory techniques and then students
performance was measured. For example, the study by Ramdass and Zimmerman (2008) trained students with self-correction and self-evaluation strategies that resulted to significant gains in performance in
 
50
The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment 
 
December 2011, Vol. 9(1)
© 2011 Time Taylor Academic Journals
ISSN 2094-0734
 
mathematics. Likewise, the study by Tuckman (2003) trained students with strategy techniques that controlled for procrastination, building self-confidence, and
managing one’s thinking and learning. A significant effect on GPA was obtained
 with a large effect size (
=.64).
The Present Study
Since the effect of self-regulation on grades were already established inreviews as supported by metanalsysis and consistent results from experiments andnon-experiments (see Dignath & Buttener, 2008), the predictive validity of the Academic Self-regulated Learning Scale (A-SRL-S) was established by using GPA at the end of the term as a criterion. Previous validation of the A-SRL-S was already established such as its factorial validity, concurrent validity, convergent validity, andconstruct validity (see Magno, 2010a, 2011). The next step in developing the scaleis to establish its predictive power on grades as the outcome. The prediction of grades is limited to the use of self-regulation strategies due to the following reasons:(1) Self-regulation showed to have the strongest contribution on GPA which wasconsistent in studies, (2) the study only aims to determine the predictive validity of the A-SRL-S.
MethodParticipants
The participants in the study were 2052 Filipino college students in thePhilippines. The age range of the participants is from 16 to 20 years. They are fromfive different private universities in the National Capital Region (NCR) in thePhilippines. All the participants volunteered to participate in the study.
InstrumentsAcademic Self-Regulated Learning Scale (A-SRL-S)
. The A-SRL-S wasdeveloped by Magno (2010a) to measure self-regulation of college students withinthe context of learning in higher education. Each item is responded by a four-point Lickert scale (Strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree). The scale iscomposed of seven factors: Memory strategy (14 items), goal-setting (5 items), self-evaluation (12 items), seeking assistance (8 items), environmental structuring (5items), learning responsibility (5 items), and planning and organizing (5 items). Theseven factors were uncovered using an initial principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Using another sample, the seven factor structure was confirmedusing Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and adequate fit was achieved(
χ 
2
=332.07, df=1409, RMS=.07, RMSEA=.06, GFI=.91, and NFI=.89). There isevidence of convergent validity where all seven factors were highly intercorrelated.High internal consistencies were also attained for each factor (.73 to .87). Using anIRT Graded Response Model, the scale showed appropriate step calibration wherethe responses are monotonically increasing. The Test Information Function curve

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