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CROP NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES - TOXICITIES

CROP NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES - TOXICITIES

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Published by ade_setiawan_it1546
This publication is part of a series of IPM
Manuals prepared by the Plant Protection
Programs of the University of Missouri. Topics
covered in the series include an introduction to
scouting, weed identification and management,
plant diseases, and insects of field and horticultural
crops. These IPM Manuals are available
from MU Extension at the following address:
Extension Publications
2800 Maguire Blvd.
Columbia, MO 65211
1-800-292-0969
This publication is part of a series of IPM
Manuals prepared by the Plant Protection
Programs of the University of Missouri. Topics
covered in the series include an introduction to
scouting, weed identification and management,
plant diseases, and insects of field and horticultural
crops. These IPM Manuals are available
from MU Extension at the following address:
Extension Publications
2800 Maguire Blvd.
Columbia, MO 65211
1-800-292-0969

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Published by: ade_setiawan_it1546 on May 08, 2009
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07/06/2014

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CROP NUTRIENT
DEFICIENCIES& TOXICITIES
Plant Protection Programs 
College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources 
IntegratedPestManagement
Published by MU Extension, University of Missouri-Columbia
$3.00IPM1016
 
CONTENTS
How nutrient disorders develop . . . . . . . . . .3Visual symptoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Sulfur-nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Zinc-magnesium-iron-manganese . . . . . . .5Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Nutrient deficiency in corn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Nutrient deficiency andtoxicity in soybeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Nutrient deficiency in rice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Nutrient deficiency in cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Nutrient deficiency in wheat . . . . . . . . . . . .10Nutrient deficiency in alfalfa . . . . . . . . . . . .11Plant tissue testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Five steps in plant tissue testing . . . . . . .12Sampling plant tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Submitting samples for testing . . . . . . . . .14Interpreting the test report . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Diagnosing nitrogen need from plant color .15
Measuring greenness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Radiometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Aerial imagery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Other field quick tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Table 1.Essential plant nutrients . . . . . . . . .3Table 2.Environmental conditionsassociated with crop nutrient deficiency .12Table 3.Guide for plant sampling ofselected agronomic crops . . . . . . . . . . . .13Table 4.Guide for plant sampling ofselected vegetables,fruits and trees . . .13Plant analysis submission form . . . . . . . . .18Authors
Gene Stevens, Department of Agronomy,University of Missouri-Delta CenterPeter Motavalli, Soil Science Program,University of Missouri-ColumbiaPeter Scharf, Department of Agronomy,University of Missouri-ColumbiaManjula Nathan, Department of Agronomy,University of Missouri-ColumbiaDavid Dunn, Soil Test Laboratory,University of Missouri-Delta Center
Credits
Unless otherwise credited in the captions, thephotographs were provided by the authors.Manyof the symptom descriptions were taken from MUpublication G9132,
Signs of Crop Hunger 
, byMarshall Christy.
On the World Wide Web
Updates to this publication will be posted on theWorld Wide Web at:http://muextension.missouri.edu/xplor/agguides/ pests/ipm1016.htm
Production
MU Extension and Agricultural InfomationDale Langford, editorDennis Murphy, designer and illustrator
 ©2002 University of Missouri
This publication is part of a series of IPMManuals prepared by the Plant ProtectionPrograms of the University of Missouri.Topicscovered in the series include an introduction toscouting, weed identification and management,plant diseases, and insects of field and horticul-tural crops.These IPMManuals are availablefrom MU Extension at the following address:
Extension Publications2800 Maguire Blvd.Columbia,MO 652111-800-292-0969
College of  AgricultureFood andNaturalResources
 
the largest amounts.
 Micronutrients 
(iron, copper,manganese, zinc, boron, molybdenum, chlorineand nickel) are required in relatively smalleramounts in plants. Other mineral elements thatare beneficial to some plants but are not consid-ered essential include sodium, cobalt, vanadium,selenium, aluminum and silicon. A deficiency occurs when an essentialelement is not available in sufficient quantity tomeet the needs of the growing plant. Nutrienttoxicity occurs when an element is in excess of plant needs and decreases plant growth or qual-ity. Nutrient deficiency or toxicity symptomsoften differ among species and varieties of plants.
HOW NUTRIENTDISORDERSDEVELOP
 T
he occurrence of nutrient deficien-cies or toxicities is a result of soil,crop, climatic, and cultural factors. These factors interact to influence the availabil-ity of nutrients to crop plants over the course of a growing season.Soil properties influence the form, amount,retention and movement of soil nutrients. Theeffects of soil properties on water availability alsoinfluence nutrient availability, because water isessential for chemical reactions, biological activ-ity, and the transport and absorption of nutrientsby roots. Among the critical soil chemical prop-erties affecting soil nutrient availability are soil pH(a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a soil) andsoil cation exchange capacity (a measure of thecapacity of the soil to retain positively chargednutrient ions). Some important physical proper-ties affecting nutrient availability are soil texture(the proportion of sand, silt and clay-sized parti-cles in a soil), clay mineralogy (the type of soilclay), and soil structure (the physical arrange-ment of soil particles). The soils of Missouri vary widely in theirinherent soil fertility and suitability for cropproduction. Information about the specific soilresources on your farm can be obtained by consulting your regional extension specialist or your county Farm Service Agency office or by using the Center for Agricultural Resource and
S
oil fertility is one of several factors,including light, moisture, weeds, insects,and diseases, that affect crop yield(Figure 1). An important part of crop farming isbeing able to identify and prevent plant nutrientdeficiencies and toxicities. This publicationprovides background information on the natureand development of crop nutrient disorders underthe growing conditions commonly encountered in Missouri. It is a guide to identifying crop nutrientproblems through observable symptoms on cropplants. Information is provided on effects of climatic conditions on plant nutrient availability,and the results of soil and plant tissue testing.Plants require 14 mineral elements fornormal growth and reproduction. Each of thesenutrients has a function in plants and is requiredin varying amounts in plant tissue (see Table 1).
 Macronutrients 
(nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,calcium, magnesium and sulfur) are required in
CROP NUTRIENTDEFICIENCIESAND TOXICITIES
Table 1. Essential plant nutrients.NameChemicalsymbolRelative %in plant*Function in plantNutrient category
NitrogenN100Proteins, amino acidsPrimarymacronutrientsPhosphorusP6Nucleic acids, ATPPotassiumK25Catalyst, ion transportCalciumCa12.5Cell wall componentSecondarymacronutrientsMagnesiumMg8Part of chlorophyllSulfurS3Amino acidsBoronB0.2Cell wall componentMicronutrientsChlorineCl0.3Photosynthesis reactionsCopperCu0.01Component of enzymesIronFe0.2Chlorophyll synthesisManganeseMn0.1Activates enzymesMolybdenumMo0.0001Involved in N xationNickelNi0.001Component of enzymesZincZn0.03Activates enzymes*Relative amounts of mineral elements compared to nitrogen in dry shoot tissue. Mayvary depending on plant species.

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