NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL
According to Varlas (2008), 30% students of United Statesdrop out of high school each school year. The National Center for Education Statistics ([NCES] as cited in Stillwell, 2008) reported thatthe dropout rate among 9th through 12th grade students during 2007-2008 was 25.2%. Stillwell (2008) noted that the dropout rate amongAfrican American students was 6.7%, compared to 2.8% for EuropeanAmerican students. NCES (2010) reported that although the dropoutfor African American is narrowing compared to the EuropeanAmerican student dropout rate (2.8%), from 1971 to 2009 a higher percentage of European American students than African Americanstudents graduated from high school. In Texas, the dropout rateamong African American students is higher than for any other ethnicgroup by 5% (Texas Education Agency [TEA], 2010). These statisticssuggest that African American students are in more danger of notfinishing high school than other ethnic groups, and the consequencesof this dropout rate may reflect larger social problems. Traditionally,African American students have a larger achievement gap and higher unemployment, as well as higher dropout, juvenile detention, and poverty rates (Carpenter II, Ramirez, & Severn, 2006; Child TrendsDataBank, n.d.; DeCuir-Gunby, Taliaferro, & Greenfield, 2010; InfoPlease, n.d.; Pearce, 2006; TEA, 2007).Among the many factors that contribute to the dropout problemare a lack of educational opportunities and a lack of connection withthe intended learning experience of the mandated state and localcurriculum. A lack of disciplined collective inquiry about the intendedlearning and a lack of a significant teacher-student relationship further contribute to the problem (DeCuir-Gunby et al., 2010; Foote, 2007;Marzano, 2003; Payne, 1995; Schlechty, 2002; Schmoker, 2006;Spring, 2008; Walker, 2006). Historically, the lack of these factorsnegatively affect student achievement and present an educationalinequity (Baker, 2005; Hargreaves, 2003; Lewis, James, Hancock, &Hill-Jackson, 2008; Pearce, 2006; Shipler, 2005; Spring, 2008;Stinson, 2006; Tatum, 2003; Walker, 2006) that exists in in specificcontent areas.