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Física 3. por Hugo Medina Guzmán. Capítulo 1. Electrostática

Física 3. por Hugo Medina Guzmán. Capítulo 1. Electrostática

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Published by Hugo Medina Guzmán
Física 3 Versión Mejorada

Hugo Medina Guzmán


Física 3. Capítulo 1. Electrostática
Física 3 Versión Mejorada

Hugo Medina Guzmán


Física 3. Capítulo 1. Electrostática

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Published by: Hugo Medina Guzmán on Jul 01, 2013
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02/17/2014

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Agaetrkstàtle` Dunk Iamlf` Nuziàf
0
E
@XÉ]QGK
0& AGAE]RKU]À]LE@LF]RKMQEELÕF&
G` prliar` kbsarv`elõf ma g` agaetrlz`elõf saraikft` ` g` ìpke` ma g` Nrael` `ftlnu`& @ ]`gasma Ilgatk sa ga `trlbuya d`bar kbsarv`mk g``tr`eelõf qua ag àib`r pravl`iafta crkt`mk'aoarea skbra paquaðks pam`zks ma clbr` y p`o`&@ pas`r ma qua g` agaetrlz`elõf mag àib`r pkr crleelõf cua tr`fsiltlm` ma uf aserltk ` ktrk' f`m`fuavk sa maseubrlõ d`st` prlfelplks mag slngkTSLL af qua Ulr ^lggl`i Nlgbart `fufelõ agmaseubrlilaftk ma qua iued`s sust`fel`s pkmé`fsar agaetrlz`m`s pkr crkt`ilaftk y qua ag àib`r as ufk ma gks iuedks i`tarl`gas qua i`flclast`fag acaetk&
AG AGAE]RKUEKXLK&
 Mlspksltlvk qua slrva p`r` mataet`r y iamlr g`e`rn` agìetrle` ma uf kboatk& Gks agaetrksekplksd`f e`émk af masusk mablmk `g mas`rrkggk malfstruiaftks agaetrõfleks iuedk iàs praelsks' park tkm`vé` sa utlglz`f p`r` d`ear maikstr`elkfas& Ag agaetrksekplk iàs safelggkastà ekipuastk pkr mks ekfmuetkras glnarkssuspafmlmks af uf ekftafamkr ma vlmrlk u ktrki`tarl`g `lsg`fta&Ua puama utlglz`r uf agaetrksekplk p`r`matarilf`r sl uf kboatk astà e`rn`mkagìetrle`iafta& Eu`fmk uf kboatk e`rn`mk sa`eare` `g bugbk' g`s dko`s mlvarnaf&`, Ag agaetrksekplk fautrk tlafa g`s e`rn`smlstrlbulm`s uflckriaiafta' g`s dko`s astàf ouft`s&$b, G`s cuarz`s agaetrkstàtle`s e`us`f qua g`sdko`s mlvaro`f&
AGAE]RL_@ELÕF
Ul crkt`rfks uf` b`rr` ma pgàstlek ekf uf` plag man`tk' k sl crkt`iks uf` b`rr` ma vlmrlk ekf sam`&G`s b`rr`s `mqularaf g` prkplam`m ma `tr`ar euarpks glnarks ekrfk pam`eltks ma p`pag ` uf` paquað` bkg` daed` m` i`tarl`g glnark ekikekredk k iìmug` ma s`ÿek $U`ibueus paruvl`f`,suspafmlm` pkr dlgks ma sam`& Ua mlea qua astkseuarpks astàf agaetrlz`mks&Ul crkt`rfks uf` b`rr` ma ekbra skstaflm` pkr g`i`fk' fk d`brà `eelõf skbra gks euarpks glnarks' park sl crkt`iks g` ilsi` b`rr` ma ekbra parkast` vaz skstaflm` pkr uf i`fnk ma vlmrlk' saagaetrlz` y aoarearà `eelõf skbra gks euarpksglnarks&K sa` qua tafaiks euarpks ma mks e`tankré`s' gks prliarks ekik `g vlmrlk' pgaxlngàs' abkflt`'raslf` qua sa agaetrlz`f `n`rràfmkgks ekf 0`i`fk y ktrks euarpks qua faeaslt`f uf i`fnk mauf i`tarl`g ma g` prliar` e`tankré` p`r` pkmar sar agaetrlz`mksG` axparlafel` maiuastr` qua af gks euarpks mag` prliar` e`tankré` g` agaetrlelm`m pari`faeagke`glz`m` af gks puftks crkt`mks' fk sa prkp`n`'astks euarpks skf i`gks ekfmuetkras ma g`agaetrlelm`m sa ekfkeaf ekik
`lsg`ftas
k
mlagìetrleks
&X`r` gks euarpks ma sanufm` e`tankré`' g`s prkplam`mas ma g` `tr`eelõf skbra euarpks glnarksfk skgk sa i`flclast`f af gks puftks crkt`mks'slfk af tkmks gks puftks' ` sa` g` agaetrlz`elõf prkmuelm` sa tr`fsilta ` tkmks gks puftks mageuarpk' astks euarpks skf ekfkelmks ekik
ekfmuetkras
&Ag euarpk dui`fk y g` tlarr` skf ekfmuetkras&@maiàs ma g` agaetrlz`elõf pkr crkt`ilaftkmaserlt`' d`y ktr`s ckri`s ma agaetrlz`elõf qualfmle`iks ` ekftlfu`elõf&
Agaetrlz`elõf pkr ekft`etk
G` e`rn` astr`fscarlm` `g agaetrksekplk eu`fmk g` v`rlgg`e`rn`m` tke` ag bugbk& Aftkfeas' eu`fmk uf`
 
Agaetrkstàtle` Dunk Iamlf` Nuziàf2
v`rlgg` ekf e`rn` kpuast` sa `eare` `g bugbk' g`sdko`s sa ekg`ps`f y sa ouft`f&Ag agaetrksekplk fautrk sa tke` ekf uf` v`rlgg`e`rn`m` fan`tlv`iafta: g`s e`rn`s skftr`fscarlm`s `g bugbk&Ag agaetrksekplk tlafa uf` e`rn` fan`tlv` fat`&G` v`rlgg` e`rn`m` pksltlv`iafta `tr`a gksagaetrkfas: g`s dko`s sa ekg`ps`f&
Agaetrlz`elõf pkr lfmueelõf
@g tke`r ag bugbk sa prkpkrelkf` uf` tr`yaetkrl` p`r` g`tr`fscarafel` ma e`rn`' gks agaetrkfas skftr`fscarlmks ` g` tlarr`& Eu`fmk ag mamk sa ratlr`'ag agaetrksekplk tlafa uf` e`rn` fat`' agagaetrksekplk quam` e`rn`mk pksltlv`iafta&]larr` agìetrle` sa raclara ` g` tlarr` $k sa` `g‗suagk’, k ` `gnÿf ktrk kboatk qua puam` raelblr k suilflstr`r agaetrkfas slf e`ibl`r slnflcle`tlv`iafta su prkpl` ekfmlelõf agìetrle`&Ekik astk sa maba ` agaetrkfas qua d`f slmktr`fscarlmks' ustam puama pranuft`rsa eõik sa puama e`rn`r pksltlv`iafta uf agaetrksekplk&Astk sa d`ea e`rn`fmk pkr lfmueelõf& @g tke`rsaag bugbk ekf uf mamk' ag agaetrksekplk d`eatlarr`' as maelr' sa m` uf` tr`yaetkrl` p`r` qua gksagaetrkfas puam`f ase`p`r mag bugbk& Aftkfeas'eu`fmk sa `eare` `g bugbk uf` v`rlgg` e`rn`m`fan`tlv`iafta gks agaetrkfas skf rapaglmks mag bugbk& @g ratlr`r gks mamks sa mao` `gagaetrksekplk uf` e`rn` pksltlv` fat`&5¿
Xlazkagaetrlelm`m&
Qf` gàilf` ma eu`rzkekfvaflaftaiafta t`gg`m`' sa agaetrlz` pkr ekipraslõf k pkr tr`eelõf' ag cafõiafk asravarslbga& Astks euarpks skf ekfkelmks ekik plazkagìetrleks&
Agaetrlz`elõf pkr g`s cuaftas maagaetrlelm`m&
Ul pkfaiks uf` plg` k uf`euiug`mkr' ufk ma sus pkgks sa ekfaet` ` tlarr`y ag ktrk ` uf ekfmuetkr `lsg`mk' ìsta sa agaetrlz`&Ekf uf` skg` plg` g` agaetrlz`elõf as mìblg' parksl sa mlspkfa ma iuedks agaiaftks sa kbtlafaagaetrlz`elõf càelg ma pkfar af avlmafel`&
AGAE]RLELM@M XKUL]LS@ \ FAN@]LS@
Eu`fmk crkt`iks aftra sé mks sust`fel`smlcaraftas y guank g`s sap`r`iks' fksafekftr`iks ekf mks tlpks ma agaetrlelm`m& X`r`var iaokr astk ra`gleaiks g` slnulaftaaxparlafel`&Mlspkfn`iks ma mks b`rr`s ma pgàstlek y mks b`rr`s ma vlmrlk& Ua e`rn` pkr crkt`ilaftk ekfuf` plag uf` ma g`s b`rr`s ma pgàstlek y sa g`suspafma iaml`fta uf n`fedk y uf dlgk ma fygkfekik sa iuastr` af g` clnur` slnulafta' pumlafmknlr`r glbraiafta&Ul `eare`iks ` ast` b`rr` ma pgàstlek g` ktr`crkt`m` slilg`riafta' kbsarv`iks qua nlr``gaoàfmksa' sl `eare`iks g` plag ` g` b`rr` ma pgàstlek suspafmlm` kbsarv`iks qua ìst` nlr``eareàfmksa& Ma lnu`g ikmk sl `eare`iks g` b`rr` ma vlmrlk agaetrlz`m` pkr crkt`elõf ekf sam`kbsarv`iks qua ag pgàstlek nlr` `eareàfmksa y sl`eare`iks g` sam` ag pgàstlek nlr` `gaoàfmksa&
 
Agaetrkstàtle` Dunk Iamlf` Nuziàf5
Xuastk qua g` plag `g lnu`g qua ag vlmrlk' `tr`af `g pgàstlek agaetrlz`mk' `ibks tlafaf g` ilsi` eg`sama agaetrlz`elõf& Ua mlea qua astìf e`rn`mks
pksltlv`iafta
& Ma ikmk slilg`r ag pgàstlek y g`sam` ast`ràf e`rn` mks
fan`tlv`iafta
&G`s E`rn`s pksltlv`s g`s maslnf`iks pkr ag slnfk$*, y g`s E`rn`s fan`tlv`s pkr ag slnfk $),&Ma ast` axparlafel` t`iblìf pkmaiks maserlblr qua‗G`s E`rn`s lnu`gas sa rapagaf y g`s E`rn`sekftr`rl`s sa `tr`af’&]`iblìf as uf` kbsarv`elõf axparliaft`g qua g`e`rn` fk puama sar era`m` fl mastrulm`' g` e`rn`tkt`g ma uf slstai` fk puama sar e`ibl`m`& Mag puftk ma vlst` i`erkseõplek g`s e`rn`s puamafra`nrup`rsa y e`ibl`rsa ma mlcaraftas i`far`s ksa` qua ‗G` e`rn` fat` sa ekfsarv` af uf slstai`earr`mk’&
]AKRÉ@ MA G@ AGAE]RL_@ELÕF
G` E`rn` as uf` prkplam`m e`r`etaréstle` ycufm`iaft`g ma g`s p`rtéeug`s agaiaft`gas quackri`f guank i`tarl`s& G`s sust`fel`s astìfckri`m`s pkr ikgìeug`s y ast`s pkr àtkiks&E`m` àtkik ekftlafa uf fÿegak qua tlafa uf`e`ftlm`m ekfkelm` ma e`rn` pksltlv`& Ast` E`rn` pksltlv` sa maba ` g` prasafel` ma uf elartkfÿiark ma
prktkfas
& ]kmks gks prktkfas skfsaiao`ftas y tlafaf g` ilsi` i`s` y g` ilsi`e`rn` pksltlv`& @gramamkr ma e`m` fÿegak`tõilek d`y uf fÿiark ma p`rtéeug`s e`rn`m`sfan`tlv`iafta' gg`i`m`s
agaetrkfas
& Fkri`giafta e`m` àtkik ma uf` sust`fel` asagìetrle`iafta fautrk' k sa` qua tlafa e`ftlm`maslnu`gas ma e`rn` pksltlv` y fan`tlv`' g` e`rn` mauf agaetrõf as lnu`g park kpuast` ` g` e`rn` ma uf prktõf& Af e`m` fÿegak d`y t`ftks prktkfasekik agaetrkfas d`y rkmaàfmkgk&Gks àtkiks `lsg`mks k gks nrupks nr`fmas maàtkiks y ikgìeug`s tlafaf uf` `clflm`m p`r``mqulrlr agaetrkfas `mlelkf`gas skbra ag fÿiarkax`etk qua fautr`glz`f g`s e`rn`s pksltlv`s magfÿegak& Ast` `clflm`m ma gks àtkiks p`r` tafar iàs agaetrkfas qua ag fÿiark suclelafta ma aggks'v`ré` ekfslmar`bgaiafta ma uf` sust`fela ` ktr`&Xkr gk t`ftk' eu`fmk mks sust`fel`s mlcaraftas sa pkfaf af ekft`etk' g` qua tlafa i`ykr `clflm`mtki` g`s agaetrkfas prõxliks ma g` ktr` y`mqulara uf` e`rn` fan`tlv`' ilaftr`s qua g` ktr`quam` e`rn`m` pksltlv` iafta' t`g as ag e`sk magE`uedk eu`fmk sa crkt` ekf uf` plag&
G@ GA\ MA EKQGKIB
Ast` gay ma g` cuarz` aftra gks euarpks e`rn`mks puama afufel`rsa ekik slnua?‗Euarpks ekf e`rn`s slilg`ras sa rapagaf y ekfe`rn`s mlcaraftas sa rapagaf: p`r` e`rn`s puftu`gas $gg`i`fmk puftu`g eu`fmk susmliafslkfas asp`el`gas skf iuy paquað`sekip`r`m`s ekf eu`gqular gkfnltum mag prkbgai`af euastlõf, g` cuarz` ma lftar`eelõf as prkpkrelkf`g `g prkmuetk ma gk euarpks alfvars`iafta prkpkrelkf`g `g eu`mr`mk ma g`mlst`fel` qua gks sap`r`’&G` gay cua ast`bgaelm` af 0>4= pkr Ekugkib pkr iamlks axparliaft`gas utlglz`fmk uf` b`g`fz` matkrslõf&Xkmaiks fksktrks raprkmuelr asta axparliaftkaf uf` ckri` safelgg`' p`r` astk mlspkfn`iks mamks ascar`s paquað`s ma iìmug` ma s`ÿek $sa puama us`r ascar`s ma taejfkpkr, suspafmlm`s madlgk ma fygkf' ekik sa iuastr` af g` clnur` $`,mkfma g` mlst`fel` puama v`rl`rsa ` vkguft`m& @g pkfìrsaga e`rn` ` g`s ascar`s ast`s tki`f g` pkslelõf ikstr`m` af g` clnur` $b,&

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