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An Introduction to Turbulance Models

An Introduction to Turbulance Models

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Published by xigxiao
An Introduction to Turbulance Models
An Introduction to Turbulance Models

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Published by: xigxiao on Jul 01, 2013
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06/14/2014

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Publication 97/2
An Introduction to TurbulenceModels
Lars Davidson, http://www.tfd.chalmers.se/ 
˜
lada
Department of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics
C
HALMERS
U
NIVERSITY OF
T
ECHNOLOGY
G¨oteborg, Sweden, November 2003
 
  ¢¡¤£¦¥¨§©£¦¥¤ !"
Nomenclature 31 Turbulence 5
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
#
1.2 Turbulent Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$
1.3 Vorticity/Velocity Gradient Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . .
%
1.4 Energy spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
&
2 Turbulence Models 12
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
')(
2.2 Boussinesq Assumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
')#
2.3 Algebraic Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
')$
2.4 Equations for Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
')$
2.4.1 The Exact
0
Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
')$
2.4.2 The Equation for
'213(547698@6A8CB
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
')D
2.4.3 The Equation for
'213(54FE6G8FE6A8CB
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
')&
2.5 The Modelled
0
Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(3H
2.6 One Equation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(I'
3 Two-Equation Turbulence Models 22
3.1 The Modelled
P
Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Q(
3.2 Wall Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Q(
3.3 The
0¤RSP
Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Q#
3.4 The
0¤RUT
Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Q$
3.5 The
0¤RSV
Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(W%
4 Low-Re Number Turbulence Models 28
4.1 Low-Re
0XRSP
Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Q&
4.2 The Launder-Sharma Low-Re
0¤RSP
Models . . . . . . . . . .
YQ(
4.3 Boundary Condition for
P
and
`P
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
YQY
4.4 The Two-Layer
0¤RaP
Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ycb
4.5 The low-Re
0¤RUT
Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
YQ#
4.5.1 The low-Re
0¤RUT
Model of Peng
et al.
. . . . . . . . .
YQ$
4.5.2 The low-Re
0¤RUT
Model of Bredberg
et al.
. . . . . . .
YQ$
5 Reynolds Stress Models 38
5.1 Reynolds Stress Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
YQ&
5.2 Reynolds Stress Models
vs.
Eddy Viscosity Models . . . . . .
bWH
5.3 Curvature Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
bF'
5.4 Acceleration and Retardation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
bQb(
 
£
¡  £¢¥¤§¦©¨©¤ !
#"
!
%$'&)(
10%2  
3547698A@CB©D'EGFIHQPAR STVUWSYX`UWSba
constants in the Reynolds stress model
SdcTUWSdcX
constants in the Reynolds stress model
SdeTUWSfeX
constants in the modelled
P
equation
SfghTVUWSfgiX
constants in the modelled
T
equation
Sdp
constant in turbulence model
q
energy (see Eq. 1.8); constant in wall functions (see Eq. 3.4)
r
damping function in pressure strain tensor
0
turbulent kinetic energy (
sTXt
8
t
8
)
6
instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in
u
-direction
68
instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in
u
8
-direction
E6
time-averaged velocity in
u
-direction
E6A8
time-averaged velocity in
u
8
-direction
t£vUt£w
shear stresses
t
fluctuating velocity in
u
-direction
tX
normal stress in the
u
-direction
t
8
fluctuating velocity in
u
8
-direction
t
8
tyx
Reynolds stress tensor
instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in
-direction
E
time-averaged velocity in
-direction
v
fluctuating (or laminar) velocity in
-direction
vX
normal stress in the
-direction
viw
shear stress
instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in
-direction
E
time-averaged velocity in
-direction
w
fluctuating velocity in
-direction
wX
normal stress in the
-direction
h B©D'EGFIH©PR
 boundary layer thickness; half channel height
P
dissipation
wave number; von Karman constant (
H
y
bF'
)
dynamic viscosity
dynamic turbulent viscosity
kinematic viscosity
kinematic turbulent viscosity
8
instantaneous (or laminar) vorticity component in
u
8
-direction
Y

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