NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL
instructional technology. As technology capabilities explode across thesocial, business and educational landscapes, schools still struggle toeither incorporate or even keep up with these existing tools anddevices. Zucker (2009) stated that technology in education has passedthe tipping point and digital technologies are transforming education,although slowly and not always in the school. Digital technologieshave impacted students in key areas: when and where students learn,with whom students learn, what students learn, and how studentslearn. Online courses opened learning to anytime/anywhere access,yet many schools have not embraced online learning for other thanremediation purposes (Zucker, 2009). The use of personal digitaldevices such as smart phones, tablets, and readers has providedunprecedented access to learning, yet they are often shunned or even banned in schools. These factors lead us into a conversation regardingleadership and the state of technology in schools.
Review of Literature
The implementation and integration of technology in
- 12 classrooms is a topic of great interest amongeducators. This interest appears to be the result of the challenges presented by the rapid changes in the technological market (Ramirez,2011). This author points out that schools, especially large districtslike those studied in this project, may be experiencing widespreadintegration problems. Issues include the lack of support for training,lack of long range planning, lack of technology knowledge by schoolofficials, and internal and external organizational threats to integration.District leadership plays a vital role in integrating technologyeffectively into the classroom as is considered a complex school-widechange (Schrum, Galizio, & Ledesma, 2011).
The discussion of “digital natives” (Prensky, 2001)
isintriguing to educators but does not fully address the issue of teachingand learning. Youth today use technology for social and entertainment purposes; their familiarity with available technology does not