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Webb - Jurica, National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal - www.nationalforum.com - National Refereed Journal - William Allan Kritsonis, PhD - Editor-in-Chief (Founded 1982)

Webb - Jurica, National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal - www.nationalforum.com - National Refereed Journal - William Allan Kritsonis, PhD - Editor-in-Chief (Founded 1982)

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Webb - Jurica, National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal - www.nationalforum.com - National Refereed Journal - William Allan Kritsonis, PhD - Editor-in-Chief (Founded 1982)
Webb - Jurica, National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal - www.nationalforum.com - National Refereed Journal - William Allan Kritsonis, PhD - Editor-in-Chief (Founded 1982)

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Published by: William Allan Kritsonis on Jul 01, 2013
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10/21/2013

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 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNALVOLUME 30, NUMBER 3, 2013
58
TECHNOLOGY & NEW TEACHERS:WHAT DO SCHOOL DISTRICTS EXPECTFROM THEIR NEW HIRES?
Lorrie Webb, Ph.D.James Jurica, Ph.D.Texas A&M University-San Antonio
 
ABSTRACTThis article is an exploratory examination of data collected from 96 schooldistricts regarding the technology skills that future teachers should be taught inpublic schools. Several suggestions are made by study respondents regardingthe changing needs of technology skills expected of new teachers withimplications for instruction in university educator preparation programs.Future analysis of data from this preliminary study could be useful for futurepolicy recommendations for school administrators in terms of hiringexpectations and considerations for evaluating and hiring prospective teachersfor public school classrooms.
Introduction
Today‟s educators are pressured to meet the needs of the
students they serve (Williams, Foulger, & Wetzel, 2009). TheConsortium for School Networking (2004) discovered that the internetwas rarely implemented effectively in classrooms, even though 99 percent of elementary and secondary schools have access to theresource. Universities are struggling to prepare future educators withthe skills needed today, as well as for future technologies. Onechallenge is in determining the specific skills these educators will need
(Albee, 2003). “As future students enter their college programs with
more previous exposure to technology, the specific skill development
 
WEBB & JURICA
59
 
needed during their college tenure may look increasingly different(Collier, Weinburgh, & Rivera, 2004). Donovan and Green (2009)stated that technology will eventually become as integral as classroommanagement in teacher education programs. In order to attain thisgoal, research is needed on the expectations that school districts haveon teacher graduates. This study attempted to discover theseexpectations in one metropolis area.
Literature Review
Two primary areas of research related to this research project:
characteristics of “digital native” students and preparing teachers to
address these characteris
tics in their future students. The term “digitalnative” has been coined to represent those who have grown up in the
digital age
 – 
not having experienced a world without digital media(Prensky, 2001). According to Small and Vorgan (2008), these
students‟ b
rains were conditioned differently due to the frequent use of digital media such as email, video games, VOIP, and texting. Studentswere no longer passive viewers but active participants. They weremotivated by the desire to be busy and stay connected throughmultitasking (Sprenger, 2009).Tapscott (2009) found that the average 8 to 18 year old spendsapproximately 6 hours a day connected to some digital communicationdevice
 – 
sometimes several simultaneously. Lewin (2010) discoveredthat an average young American spent at least three hours a day on amobile device: one half of an hour talking, two hours consumingmedia, and one hour receiving and sending over 500 texts. They wereable to interact with 11 hours of media in only seven and a half hoursdue to multitasking. Oblinger and Oblinger (2005) characterizeddigital natives as highly social and quick reactors who craved
immediacy and expected the same from others. They are “morevisually literate than previous generations… able to weave together 
images
, text, and sound in a natural way” (Oblinger & Oblinger, 2005,
 p. 2.5). These students also preferred team-based learning in order tostay connected with others.
 
60
NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL
 
Today‟s students are “in danger of experiencing their education
as irrelevant to their wired
lives” (Kitsis, 2010, p. 50). Current teacher 
 preparation programs need to be able to address the needs of thesedigital natives, who will eventually be students in their classrooms.Technology has normally been addressed in one of two ways inteacher education programs: a single course or two devoted to teachingwith technology or an integration approach weaving technologythroughout methods courses. Both approaches have their problems. Nosingle technology course effectively addresses all issues (Brown &Warschauer, 2006); yet, integration programs do not seem to modeltechnology within methods courses adequately (Adamy & Boulmetis,2006). Since the digital native students in the future classrooms couldvery well know more about the technologies available, a shift inteacher education programs is beginning to occur. Instead of continuing to teach about new technologies, programs should prepareteachers to learn about new technologies on their own and toimplement them in meaningful ways (Williams, Foulger, & Wetzel,2009). However, in order to feel confident in learning newtechnologies, preservice teachers need foundational technology skills.Several studies attempted to determine technology skills of preserviceteachers, as well as specific skills needed.In Northwestern Pennsylvania, education majors completed asurvey based on perceptions of their computer skills (Fleming,Motamedi, & May, 2007). The study determined that the preserviceteachers perceived their computer skills as less than average in 14areas. Ninety-six percent of the students surveyed owned their owncomputer and used it at least three to five hours each week, yet feltinadequately prepared to use technology (Fleming, Motamedi, & May,2007). Benson, Farnsworth, Bahr, Lewis, and Shaha (2004) assessed
 preservice teachers‟ technology skills during their first year in the
teacher education program, followed by mid-program and post- program surveys, and an exit interview. The results of the initialsurvey showed knowledge and skills to be minimal with theexceptions of word processing and the Internet. After taking the
required technology course, the students‟ skill levels showed
statistically significant increases in all areas. The post-program survey

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