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Ch5 - Creatine Monohydrate.pdf

Ch5 - Creatine Monohydrate.pdf

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Published by Marabe Minkal

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Published by: Marabe Minkal on Jul 01, 2013
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Brink’s
BODY
BODY
 BUILDING
BUILDING
Copyright Will Brink & Internet Publications.
WARNING
: This e-book is protected by Federal copyright law. It is illegalto re-sell , auction, share or give away thise-book. Violators will be prosecuted to the ullest extent o the law.
198
Revealed
Return to T.O.C.
What is it?
Creatine is ormed in the human body rom the amino acids methionine,glycine, and arginine. Creatine is stored in the human body as creatinephosphate (CP) or phosphocreatine. The average person’s body containsapproximately 120 grams o creatine stored as creatine and creatine phos-phate.Creatine can also be supplied by oods. Certain oods such as bee, her-ring, and salmon, are airly high in creatine, but a person would have to eatpounds o these oods daily to equal what can be ound in one teaspoon o powdered creatine rom a supplement.
What is it supposed to do?
During short maximal bouts o exercise such as weight training or sprint-ing, stored adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the dominant energy source.However, stored ATP is depleted rapidly. To give energy, ATP loses a phos-phate and becomes adenosine diphosphate (ADP). At this point, the ADPmust be converted back to ATP to derive energy rom this energy produc-ing system.When ATP is depleted, it can be recharged by creatine, in the orm o cre-atine phosphate. That is, the CP donates a phosphate to the ADP making itATP again. An increased pool o CP means aster and greater recharging o ATP and, thereore, more work can be perormed or a short duration, suchas sprinting, weight liting and other explosive anaerobic endeavors.Other efects o creatine may be increases in protein synthesis and increasedcell hydration, though researchers are still elucidating the mechanisms.
What does the research say?
 The above is, o course, an immensely oversimplied review o an excep-tionally complex system, but the basic explanation is correct. To date, re-search has shown ingesting creatine can increase the total body pool o CPwhich leads to greater generation o orce with anaerobic orms o exercise,
Creatine Monohydrate
Chapter 5/Creatine Monohydrate
 
Brink’s
BODY
BODY
 BUILDING
BUILDING
Copyright Will Brink & Internet Publications.
WARNING
: This e-book is protected by Federal copyright law. It is illegalto re-sell , auction, share or give away thise-book. Violators will be prosecuted to the ullest extent o the law.
199
Revealed
such as weight training, sprinting, etc.Early research with creatine showed it can increase lean body mass andimprove perormance in sports that require high intensity intermittent ex-ercise such as sprinting, weight liting, ootball, etc.Creatine has had spotty results in research that examined its efects on en-durance oriented sports such as swimming, rowing and long distance run-ning, with some studies showing no positive efects on perormance withendurance athletes.Whether or not the ailure o creatine to improve perormance with endur-ance athletes was due to the nature o the sport or the design o the stud-ies is still being debated. But one thing is or sure; the research is strongerin high intensity sports o short duration.Recent ndings with creatine monohydrate have conrmed previous re-search showing it’s a sae and efective supplement. More recent researchhas ocused on exactly how it works, and has looked deeper into its poten-tial medical uses.Several studies have shown it can reduce cholesterol by up to 15%, andmay be useul or treating wasting syndromes such as HIV. Creatine is alsobeing looked at as a supplement that may help with diseases afecting theneuromuscular system, such as muscular dystrophy (MS) and others.A plethora o recent studies suggest creatine may have therapeutic ap-plications in aging populations, muscle atrophy, atigue, gyrate atrophy,Parkinsons disease, Huntington’s disease, and other mitochondrial cytopa-thies, neuropathic disorders, dystrophies, myopathies and brain patholo-gies. The importance o creatine is underscored by creatine deciency disorders:inborn errors o metabolism that prevent creatine rom being manuac-tured. People born without the enzyme(s) responsible or making creatinesufer rom a variety o neurological and developmental symptoms whichare mitigated with creatine supplementation.As or saety, some have suggested that creatine might increase the needor extra uid intake to avoid potential dehydration and muscle pulls. Still,creatine has not been shown to increase either dehydration or muscle pulls
Chapter 5/Creatine Monohydrate
 
Brink’s
BODY
BODY
 BUILDING
BUILDING
Copyright Will Brink & Internet Publications.
WARNING
: This e-book is protected by Federal copyright law. It is illegalto re-sell , auction, share or give away thise-book. Violators will be prosecuted to the ullest extent o the law.
200
Revealed
in the research. In some people, creatine may increase a by-product o cre-atine metabolism called creatinine, which is a crude indicator but not acause o kidney problems.Some doctors have mistakenly thought that high creatinine levels (inathletes using creatine) are a sign o kidney problems, but that is not thecase.Creatinine is not toxic to the kidneys and most doctors are not aware thatcreatine may raise creatinine levels with no toxicity to the kidneys. Peoplewith pre-existing kidney problems might want to avoid creatine due to theefects it can have on this test, though creatine supplementation has neverbeen shown to be toxic to the kidneys and the vast number, o studies todate have ound creatine to be exceedingly sae.It’s interesting to note that there has been a concerted efort by manygroups and ignorant medical proessionals to portray creatine as beingsomehow poorly researched (atly untrue) and unsae or long term use. They systematically ignore the dozens o studies that exist showing it’sboth sae and efective. Even more bizarre, they ignore the recent studiesthat are nding creatine may help literally thousands o people with theaorementioned diseases. This is unscientic, unethical, and just plain im-moral, in my view.One question that oten comes up regarding creatine is whether or not theloading phase is required. Originally, the advice or getting optimal resultswas to load up on creatine ollowed by a maintenance dose thereater. Thisadvice was based on the act that the human body already contains ap-proximately 120 grams o creatine (as creatine and creatine phosphate)stored in tissues and to increase total creatine stores, one had to load orseveral days in order to increase those stores above those levels. The idea also seemed to work well, in practice, with people noticing con-siderable increases in strength and weight during the loading phase. Allwas not perect however as many people ound the loading phase to be aproblem, with gastrointestinal upset, diarrhea and other problems. At thevery least, loading was inconvenient and potentially expensive. The need or a loading phase was a long held belie, but is it really neededto derive the benets o creatine? The answer appears to be no, as both
Chapter 5/Creatine Monohydrate

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