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05 Paper 30041334 IJCSIS Camera Ready Pp. 30-38

05 Paper 30041334 IJCSIS Camera Ready Pp. 30-38

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 11, No. 5, May 2013
 Hybrid Gravitational Search Algorithm and Genetic Algorithms for  Automated Segmentation of Brain Tumors Using Feature_based  Symmetric Ananlysis
 
Muna Khalaf Omar 
Software Engineering Dept.University of Mosul
Mosul, Iraqmunasoft@yahoo.comDr.Jamal Salahaldeen Majeed Al-Neamy
Assistant professor, Software Engineering Dept.University of Mosul
Mosul, Iraq jamal_alneamy@yahoo.com
 Abstract 
 — 
 Medical image processing is the most challenging and emerging field now a days. Processing of MRI images is a part of this field. In this paper, animage segmentation techniques were used to detect brain tumors from mri images, the proposed systemwas built from three phases, feature extraction, tumor detection and finally tumor segmentation to producesegmented brain tumor. Index Terms
 — 
 
feature extraction, GravitationalSearch Algorithm (GSA), Genetic Algorithms (GA),symmetric analysis, thresholded segmentation.1.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
Image segmentation plays a critical role in all advancedimage analysis applications, a key purpose of segmentation is to divide image into regions and objectsthat correspond to real world objects or areas, and theextent of subdivision depends on requirements of specificapplication. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is amedical imaging technique most commonly used inradiology to visualize the structure and function of the body. It provides detailed images of the body in any planewith higher discrimination than other radiology imagingmethods such as CT, SPECT etc. Specifically, mining of  brain injuries that appear in an MRI sequence is animportant task that assists medical professionals todescribe the appropriate treatment[1]. Computer aided detection of brain tumors is one of themost difficult issues in field of abnormal tissuesegmentations because of many challenges. The braininjuries are of varied shapes and can also deform other normal and healthy tissue structures. Intensitydistribution of normal tissues is very complicated andthere exist some overlaps between different types of tissues[2]. Considering the above shortcomings, this paper gives anintuitive method which integrates the OptimizationAlgorithms with the Image processing techniques for thedetecting of brain abnormalities. Unlike others, thisapproach uses the vertical symmetry of the brain whichcan be implemented in real-time and is robust to change in parameters, therefore it is applicable to a much wider range of MRI data. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In section 2we give an overview of the related work done in the braintumors detection. In section 3, the technical details of our work are provided and discussed. Section 4 givesexperimental results. Finally, conclusion is given insection 5. 
2. RELATED WORKS AND OUR CONTRIBUTION 2.1 Related Works
Many researches and method were presented in the field of  brain tumors detection and segmentation.On 2010 T.Logeswari and M.Karnan proposed asegmentation method consisting of MRI film artifacts andnoise removing and then a Hierarchical Self OrganizingMap (HSOM) is applied for image segmentation[3]. On2011 Sarbani Datta and Dr. Monisha Chakraborty pre- processed the two-dimensional magnetic resonance imagesof brain and subsequently detect the tumor using edgedetection technique and color based segmentationalgorithm. Edge-based segmentation has beenimplemented using operators e.g. Sobel ,Prewitt, Canny
30http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 11, No. 5, May 2013
and Laplacian of Gaussian operators and the color-basedsegmentation method was accomplished using K-meansclustering algorithm[4].On 2012 Dina Aboul Dahab, Samy S. A. Ghoniemy andGamal M. Selim applied modified image segmentationtechniques on MRI scan images to detect brain tumors anda modified Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) modelthat is based on learning vector quantization (LVQ) withimage and data analysis and manipulation techniques tocarry out an automated brain tumor classification[5].Also on the same year Manoj K Kowar and SourabhYadav ed a technique for the detection of tumor in brainusing segmentation and histogram thresholding and a braindivision technique[6].Finally on 2013 S.S. Mankikar proposed a hybridframework that uses the K-means clustering followed byThreshold filter to track down the tumor objects inmagnetic resonance (MR) brain images[7]. 
2.2 Our Contributions 
Image feature selection is a significant prerequisite for most image processing algorithms, that reason was behindusing optimization algorithms for best features selection.Also symmetric feature in brain images can be utilized for detecting the lower part of brain tumors and the idea of dynamic decomposition promotes enhancing of smaller and undispersed local asymmetries rather than adopting aglobal symmetric approach as used earlier.
3.TECHNICAL APPROACH3.1 Feature Extraction:
3.1.1
Features
 
construction
 Gray Level Based Features:These features do not consider the spatialinterdependence. Eleven measures were selected (meanstandard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and seveninvariant moments)[8].
Measures of Location (Mean)
The most commonly used measure of location is themean, computable only for quantitative variables. Givena set X
1
, X
2
…, X
n
of no observations, the arithmeticmean (the mean for short) is given by[37]:
 N in
 Xi X  X  X   X 
121
...
(1)where:
 X 
is mean
 N 
is number of data point
 X 
1
…X 
n
is the grey level data image
Measures of Variability (Standard Deviation)
 The most commonly used for quantitative data is thevariance. Given a set X
1
, X
2
…, X
n
of N quantitativeobservations of a variable X, and indicating with
 X 
astheir arithmetic mean, the variance is defined by theaverage squared deviation from the mean:
 N ii
 X  X  N  X 
122
11)(
  
(2)Then calculating the standard deviation. It is the square rootof the variance:
)()(
2
 X  X  std 
  
(3)
Measures of Asymmetry (Skewness)
Skewness is a measure of symmetry, or more precisely,the lack of symmetry. For univariate data X
1
, X
2
, …, X
n
the formula of skewness is:skewness =
    
313
1
  
 N i
 X  Xi N 
(4)
Measures of Kurtosis
Kurtosis is a measure of whether the data are peaked or flat relative to a normal distribution. For univariate dataX
1
, X
2
, …, X
n
the formula of kurtosis in standard normaldistribution is three for this reason, excess kurtosis is:
31http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 11, No. 5, May 2013
kurtosis =
31
414
    
  
 N i
 X  Xi N 
(5)where:
 X 
is mean
  
is standard deviation
 N 
is number of data pointThus, the standard normal distribution has akurtosis of zero. Positive value indicated a peakeddistribution and negative value indicated a flatdistribution.
Seven Invariant Moments
Moment invariants were firstly introduced in 1961, based on a method of algebra invariants. Using non– linear combination of regular moments which arereferred to as geometric moments (GM), a set of invariant moments was derived. It is a desirable propertyof being invariant under image translation, scaling androtation[9].In this study, GM technique with its set of seveninvariant moments, has been used because of itscharacteristic of being invariant against translation,scaling and rotation and its attributes of each formulaof its set.
Texture Based Features
 Gray level co_occurrence matrix (GLCM) is the basisfor the Haralick texture features. This matrix is squarewith dimension Ng, where Ng is the number of graylevels in the image. Element [i,j] of the matrix isgenerated by counting the number of times a pixel withvalue i is adjacent to a pixel with value j and thendividing the entire matrix by the total number of suchcomparisons made. Each entry is therefore considered to be the probability that a pixel with value i will be foundadjacent to a pixel of value j [10].Haralick and his colleagues (1973) suggested extracting14 features from the co-occurrence matrix, in this studywe used the most common 4 measures of these 14which are, contrast, entropy, energy and homogeneity ,they can be expressed as follows[11]:
Homogeneity
 
(H)
=
10,0
1,
 Ng  ji
 ji jic
(6) 
Contrast
 
(Con)
=
1002
,
 Ng  ji
 jic ji
(7) 
Entropy (ENT)
=
100
,,
 Ng  ji
 jic Log  jic
(8) 
Energy
=
1002
,
 Ng  ji
 jic
(9)where
i
and
 j
are coordinates of the co–occurrencematrix space,
c(i, j)
is element in the co–occurrencematrix at the coordinates
i
and
 j
,
 Ng 
is dimension of the co–occurrence matrix, as gray value range of theinput image. While in GLCM texture measure,normalization of GLCM matrix by each valuedivided by the sum of element values is applied andthe
c(i, j)
is replaced to the probability value[11].
3.1.2 Feature
 
selection
Although feature selection is primarily performed toselect relevant and informative features, it can haveother motivations, including general data reduction,feature set reduction and performanceimprovement[12].In this work a new algorithm was derived byhybridization of Gravitational Search AlgorithmGSA and Genetic Algorithms GA for selecting thetwo best features to be used for tumor detection. The
32http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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