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CFD Determination of Inside Fluid Reservors Movements and Wall Loads Earthquake 1698

CFD Determination of Inside Fluid Reservors Movements and Wall Loads Earthquake 1698

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Ground-supported reservoirs are used for a large variety of fluids and liquefied gases storages. During the processes of filling, emptying and other exterior exceptional conditions the liquid develop a particular system of dynamic loading that can affect the integrity of the structure. The present papers consider a CFD analysis for establishing that effects of loading history of fluids that can take place on the walls of the reservoirs in the conditions of filling, emptying and in the
earthquake time. The pressure distribution on the walls is transformed in normal pressure (impulsive pressure) and in the
tangent pressure with the walls (convective pressure) and applied to the structure of the reservoir. The verifications of the
mathematical modeling were done using the acceleration spectra specifically to an earthquake with 7.4 magnitudes on Richter scale acting on both directions. This paper provides theoretical background for investigation of hydrodynamic pressure that is being developing during an earthquake in the liquid storage ground-supported rectangular container.
Ground-supported reservoirs are used for a large variety of fluids and liquefied gases storages. During the processes of filling, emptying and other exterior exceptional conditions the liquid develop a particular system of dynamic loading that can affect the integrity of the structure. The present papers consider a CFD analysis for establishing that effects of loading history of fluids that can take place on the walls of the reservoirs in the conditions of filling, emptying and in the
earthquake time. The pressure distribution on the walls is transformed in normal pressure (impulsive pressure) and in the
tangent pressure with the walls (convective pressure) and applied to the structure of the reservoir. The verifications of the
mathematical modeling were done using the acceleration spectra specifically to an earthquake with 7.4 magnitudes on Richter scale acting on both directions. This paper provides theoretical background for investigation of hydrodynamic pressure that is being developing during an earthquake in the liquid storage ground-supported rectangular container.

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04/09/2015

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Computer fluid dynamics determination of inside fluid reservoirsmovements and walls loads during and earthquakes
Lecturer Dr. Eng.
Ioan Sorin Leoveanu
11
University “Transilvania” from
Braşov
Rezumat
Rezervoarele sunt constructii destinate depozitarii unei mari varietati de fluide, gaze lichefiate sau diverse gaze.In timpul proceselor de umplere, golire sau in cazul unui cutremur lichidele stocate in acestea vor dezvolta unsistem de incarcari dinamice care poate afecta integritatea structurii. Lucrarea propsa are ca scop utilizareaanaliza numerica bazata pe calculul dinamicii fluidului (CFD) pentru a determina dinamica presiunii exercitate defluid asupra rezervoarelor in timpul manevrarii acestora. In lucrare s-a pus un accent deosebit pe efectul pe careo miscare seismica avind caracteristicile marilor cutremure din Vrancea. Accelerogramele fiind ale ultimului marecutremur. Se considera ca sistemul de forte distribuite produse de miscarea fluidului este format din fortedistribuite normale pe suprafata in contact cu fluidul (presiune impulsiva) si intr-un sistem de presiuni distribuitetangential pe suptafata de contact (presiune convectiva). Lucrarea isi propune sa puna in evidenta complexitateaunor astfel de probleme.
Cuvinte cheie

- Dinamica fluidelor, cutemure de pamint, rezervoare, sisteme de incarcare
Abstract
Ground-supported reservoirs are used for a large variety of fluids and liquefied gases storages. During theprocesses of filling, empting and other exterior exceptional conditions the liquid develop a particular system of dynamic loading that can affect the integrity of the structure. The present papers consider a CFD analysis for establishing that effects of loading history of fluids that can take place on the walls of the reservoirs in theconditions of filling, empting and in the earthquake time. The pressure distribution on the walls is transformed innormal pressure (impulsive pressure) and in the tangent pressure with the walls (convective pressure) andapplied to the structure of the reservoir. The verifications of the mathematical modeling were done using theacceleration spectra specifically to an earthquake with 7.4 magnitudes on Richter scale acting on both directions.This paper provides theoretical background for investigation of hydrodynamic pressure that is being developingduring an earthquake in the liquid storage ground-supported rectangular container.
Key words
-
1.Introduction
Satisfactory performance of tanks during strong ground shaking is crucial for modern facilities. Tanksthat were inadequately designed or detailed have suffered extensive damage during past earthquakes [2-7] or external exceptional loads. The knowledge of forces and pressure acting on the tanks walls duringthe earthquake, explosions, tsunami and other natural or military exceptional loads plays essential rolein reliable and durable design of structure resistance tanks, which are made from steel or concrete andworking at the soil level, inside the soil or over the soil level. From the last big earthquake theknowledge of the fluid movement inside the waste reservoirs and tank become more important untilnow. The use of prescriptions and codes get there limits in the cases of extreme conditions functional of

that important buildings. The problems consist in loads system establishing for the geometry other thatcircular or rectangular and in the case of waves breaking walls inside the reservoir. The paper works tryto overcome those problems by using the CFD modelling. The numerical methods frequently used for incompressible fluids are based on VOF or MAC method [8-10] and a large number of versions basedon the two methods exist. In the paper we use the MAC method with some modifications from the boundary condition. We consider for the beginning the simple 2D analyses for a good and quick estimation of the differences between an analytic and numerical solution. The algorithm developedconsider the free surface too facilities and the small walls deformations. The results obtained put inevidence the complexity of the problem and the importance of knowledge the liquid movement in thecase when for some applications the fluid must be pumped from the reservoir in the moment when aquake take place.
1.Numerical analysis
In this paper we try to establish the pressure distribution dynamics on the walls of reservoirs using theconstitutive Navier-Stokes system of differential equations for liquids and the fluid dynamics inside thetank based on a given acceleration spectra of a quake. In this case the earth movement processesimposed by quake modify the equilibrium of fluid stored in the tank and the fluid speed, shape and pressure change in accord with the external loads. The geometry and system of loading acting on theliquid volume stored in the tank is getting in the figure 1 for an analyzed more simple case. The shapeof free surface of liquid was modeled using marker and cell method (MAC) in accord with theMarangony flow and the resulting maps pressures on the walls are in accord with the complex movingfluid conditions. The governing equations of fluid, considered in present work and the work hypothesisare:l) The flow is 2-D, incompressible and laminar.2) Each thermal property of incompressible fluid is constant.3) The walls deformations are small and the structure move between the earthquakes with the instantacceleration of the quake.4) The time computed effects of the quake on the tank is double5) The heat dissipation and the turbulent indices are calculated only in the fluid control volume.Then the general differential equation for conservative lows can be given as:
( )
( )
x x x x x v xv
j  jii  j   jii
+      Γ +      Γ =++
φφφφφ
(1)The definitions of the letters,
φ
,
Γ
and S are done in the table 1 where
µ
is the viscosity of the fluid,
g
x
and
g
y
the gravitational acceleration,
λ
/(
ρ
c)
the heat diffusivity and
v
x
, v
y
, v
z
,
ρ
and
the fluid speed onx, y and z direction, the density and the temperature of the fluid walls will have the same acceleration asthe walls cells.
1.1.Boundary conditions.
In accord with the figure 1, the fluid in contact with the walls will be accelerating with the sameacceleration that acts on the wall. In our case, with the consideration that the walls are rigid and theredeformation is neglected, the fluid in the cells near the walls will have the same speed like the wall. Thegeneral equations used are given in table 1.Table 1.

1.1.1.Boundary condition on cells in contact with the walls.
For fluid flow analysis, either the slip wall condition or the no-slip wall condition is adopted [9, 10],according to the size of a cell and the magnitude of velocity. When the walls move, the convectioncoefficient between fluid and solid boundary is calculated, based on
Re
x
and
Pr
numbers in the fluidcells. The heat flow equation is used only to calculate the fluid temperature distribution variation in thequake action. For water and other liquids the temperature is not important but for oils and liquefiedgases the knowledge of fluid temperature and pressure becomes important. The equations for boundarydomain in contact with solid walls become:
w  jviuv aw z  pw z wv ywu xwwav y pw z vv yvu xvvau x pw xuv yuu xuu
Z  X
++= ++ =++ =++ =
ρ  µ  ρ  ρ  µ  ρ  ρ  µ  ρ
(2)

Where
a
X
,
a
and
a
Z
are the spectrum of quake accelerations transmitted to the walls. In accord with the3) hypothesis, that accelerations will be take in calculus equal with the earthquake accelerations.
1.1.2 The free boundary of the fluid.
On free surface, the sum of tangential stresses must be zero and the sum of normal stresses must beequal to the applied stresses or pressures. The tangential and normal stress conditions are applied onfree surface [7, 10]. Where
u
,
v, w
are the
x
, y and z

component of velocity;
n
x
, n
y
and
n
z
are the unitvectors which refer to the local tangential and normal direction of the surface, respectively.The definition of
φ

follows the former expression, that is,
φ
a
= (p
ext
)/
ρ

+

γ
R
m
; while
μ
representskinematics viscosity; γ
T
is the surface tension function of temperature;
p
ext
is the pressure of gas phaseinside the tank and,
R
m
is the local mean radius of the free surface. The free surface temperature timevariation is considerate nulle.Tangential stress condition for 2D modelling:
ϕ
Γ
SContinuity
ρ
00Moment
v
i
velocity on x
i
direction μ
i
xi
g  x
+
φ
v
j
velocity on x
j
direction μ
j
x  j
g  x
+
φ
w
velocityon x
direction
µ
x
g  x
+
φ
EnergyT
temperatur e
c
ρ λ
q