and about 1 to 3% isoprene. It is similar in many ways to natural rubber. It has excellentresistance, but it resists weathering, the sunlight and chemicals. This type of insulation, ingeneral, has lower mechanical properties (tensile strength, resilience, abrasion resistance andcompression set) than other elastomers. It has excellent dielectric strength, thus it can be usedfor cable insulation, encapsulating compounds and a variety of electrical applications.-Silicone rubber: is one member of the family of silicone elastomers. The elastomers arepolymers composed basically of silicon and oxygen atoms. They can be classified into generalpurpose, low temperature, high temperature, low compression set, high tensile-high tear, fluid-resistant. They are the most stable of all elastomers, they have good resistance to high and lowtemperatures, oils and chemicals. The silicone rubber is usually a long chain dimethyl siliconewhich can be vulcanized by cross linking the linear chains and can flow under heat andpressure. Basically, it consists of alternate silicon and oxygen atoms with two methyl groupsattached to each silicon atom. It resists heat, most chemicals (except strong acids and alkalies).The dielectric strength is 500 volt/mil (20KV per meter).-Neoprene: also known as chloroprene, it is the first commercial synthetic rubber. It ischemically, structurally and mechanically similar to natural rubber. It resists oils, chemicals,sunlight, weathering and aging. It is consumed by fire but it is non- combustible. It is relativelylow in dielectric strength.-Styrene-butadiene elastomers: sometimes called, Buna S are copolymers of butadiene andstyrene. The grades with styrene over 50% are considered plastics. A wide range of propertygrades exists by varying the relative amounts of styrene and butadiene. Styrene content variesfrom as low as 9% to up to 40%. They are similar in many ways to the natural rubbers.The insulating materials used with cables have the following properties: high insulationresistance, high dielectric strength, good mechanical properties, it should resist chemicalssurrounding it and it should be non hygroscopic, i.e., moisture and water resistant.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): it is a polymer derived, generally, from acetylene. It can be producedin different grades depending upon the polymerization process. PVC is inferior to vulcanizedrubber with respect to elasticity and insulation resistance. PVC when used with cables has to beprocessed with plasticizer. PVC can be classified into general purpose, hard grade PVC (has lessamount of placticizer) and heat resisting PVC.P
These thermoplastic resins include low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low densitypolyethylene (LLDPE), high density polyethylenes (HDPE) and ethylene copolymers. Theadvantages to be gained with polyethylene are light weight, outstanding chemical resistance,mechanical resistance and excellent dielectric properties. The basic properties of polyethylenescan be modified with a broad range of fillers, reinforcements and chemical modifiers.Polyethylenes are considered easy to process: injection molding, sheet film extrusion, coatingextrusion, wire and cable extrusion coating, blow molding, rotational molding, pipe and tubeextrusion and others. The basic building blocks of polyethylene are: hydrogen and carbon atoms.