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Correlation Between Enhanced Vegetation Indices and Rainfall Patterns of Kurnool District

Correlation Between Enhanced Vegetation Indices and Rainfall Patterns of Kurnool District

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Journal of Remote Sensing & GIS  Volume 4, Issue 1, ISSN: 2230 -7990
  JoRSG(2013) 1-10 © STM Journals 2013. All Rights Reserved 
Page 1
Correlation between Enhanced Vegetation Indices andRainfall Patterns of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh
Farid Kha
, Santosh Kumar 
Anurag Group of Institutions, Hyderabad, India
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, India
Vegetation indices enhance vegetation spectral signatures by combining bands of red (630
700 nm) and near-infrared wavelengths (700
1100 nm). This can be best suited to study vital activity of vegetation on land surface. Kurnool district is chosen to assess thecapability of continuous spatial and temporal coverage; MODIS-derived enhanced vegetation indices (EVI) data were utilized to monitor the vegetation seasonal dynamicsand their relationship with precipitation. Statistical analysis of mandal-wise mean EVI and corresponding seasonal rainfall data show the proportional relation with positivecorrelation. MODIS EVI is a good indicator of vegetation change with respect to rainfall. Further study is needed to refine the correlation between EVI and rainfall. This work enables demarcation of areas on the basis of density of forest; also, it helps in identifying the effect of rainfall for the healthy growth of vegetation. Finally, the drought prone areacan be identified for timely remedial action. The results also show the possibility of  predicting vegetation change in the study area due to rainfall using the derived relationships among vegetation and rainfall with the use of public domain low-resolution satellite data and ground observations.
enhanced vegetation index (EVI), moderate resolution imaging spectral-radiometer (MODIS)
Author for Correspondence 
Vegetation Indices (VIs) are spectraltransformations of two or more bands designedto enhance the contribution of vegetation properties and allow reliable spatial andtemporal intercomparisons of terrestrial photosynthetic activity and canopy structuralvariations. The enhanced vegetation index(EVI) was developed to optimize thevegetation signal with improved sensitivity inhigh-biomass regions and improved vegetationmonitoring through decoupling of the canopy background signal and reduction in atmosphereinfluences [1]. The EVI data are designed to provide consistent, spatial and temporalcomparisons of vegetation conditions, and itoffers the potential for regional analysis andsystematic and effective monitoring of theforest area. Several global and regional studieshave previously investigated the relationship between NDVI and rainfall in different parts of the world [2]. Indian climate is dominated bytwo monsoons, named as Southwest (summer)and Northeast (winter) monsoons. The summer monsoons roar onto the subcontinent (India)from the southwest, the winds carry moisturefrom the Indian Ocean and bring heavy rainsfrom June to September. The summer monsoons are welcomed in India. Farmersdepend on the rains to irrigate their land.
Additionally, a great deal of India’s electricity
is generated by waterpower provided by themonsoon rains. Indian agriculture (whichaccounts for 25% of the GDP and employs70% of the population) is heavily dependent onrains, especially crops like cotton, rice,oilseeds and coarse grains. A delay of a fewdays in the arrival of the monsoon can, anddoes, badly affect the economy, as evidencedin the numerous droughts that have taken placein the country. India experiences high rainfall between June and September. The withdrawalof Northwest monsoon begins in early October and continues till late November. Northeastwinds bring Northwest monsoon, also referredas retreating monsoon, in the southern
 Enhanced Vegetation Indices and Rainfall Patterns Khan and Kumar 
 JoRSG (2013) 1-10 © STM Journals 2013. All Rights Reserved 
Page 2
 peninsula during the month of October therebyinfluencing Southwest monsoon. Theremainder 20% occurs during the Northeastmonsoon, cyclones and local weather-related phenomena.India has a love-hate relationship withmonsoon, because too much rain and largeswathes of land are turned into virtual islandswith millions displaced and not enough rainmeans crippling drought, with all its relateddownward spiraling economic anddevelopment implications. Furthermore, theremay be droughts and floods in the same area.
The district derives its name from
Kurnool district lies betweenthe northern latitudes of 14° 54
and 16° 18
 and eastern longitudes of 76° 58
and 79° 34
.The altitude of the district varies from 100 ftabove the mean sea level. This district is bounded on the north by Tungabhadra andKrishna rivers as well as Mahabubnagar district, on the south by Kadapa andAnanthapur districts, on the west by Bellarydistrict of Karnataka state and on the east byPrakasam district. The map of the study area isshown in Figure 1.The district ranks 10th in population with35,29,494 people accounting for 4.63% of the population of the state as per 2011 populationcensus, while in area it occupies the third placewith 17659 sq. km, which accounts for 4.61%of the total area of the state. At present,Kurnool district comprises three revenuedivisions, 54 revenue mandals, 926 revenuevillages and 647 hamlet villages.
Kurnool District Map.
The current study was carried out with thefollowing aims and objectives:
Computation of mandal-wise mean EVI.
Computation of mandal-wise eight-dayaverage rainfall from DES data.
Monitor the vegetation seasonal dynamicsand their relationship with precipitation.
Establish the statistical relationship between EVI and rainfall.
Earth observation satellites Terra and Aquacontain a sensor called Moderate ResolutionImaging Spectroradiometer. Terra EOS is AMsatellite as it orbits around the Earth in themorning, traversing the equator in north tosouth direction. Aqua EOS is a PM satellite asit orbits around the Earth in the afternoon,traversing the equator in south to northdirection.MODIS data obtained through Terra and Aquacontain 36 spectral bands. This data can beused to understand global changes and indecision making for environmental protection.EVI is used for monitoring of vegetation byenhancing spectral signatures of vegetationfrom regions rich in biomass. Near-infrared,red and blue indicate surface reflectanceswhich are atmospherically corrected.The coefficients of the aerosol resistance aredenoted as C1 and C2 which identify andcorrect aerosol influences in the red band. Thecommon range of EVI for green vegetation is0.2 to 0.8. The canopy background adjustmentfactor (L) was found to be 1. The coefficientsof the aerosol resistance (C1 and C2) werefound to be 6 and 7.5. The gain factor wasfound to be 2.5. [3].The 250 m MODIS VI product will consist of only the NDVI, since the EVI utilizes the500 m blue channel and only the red and NIR  bands are at 250 m resolution.Simple polynomial regression analyses between EVI and seven-month seasonalrainfall for the study area are developed. These
Journal of Remote Sensing & GIS  Volume 4, Issue 1, ISSN: 2230 -7990
  JoRSG(2013) 1-10 © STM Journals 2013. All Rights Reserved 
Page 3
relationships could be used for derivingmissing rainfall data using the EVI values.Y = 0.0005X + 0.2752 (1)Y = 0.0005X + 0.2537 (2)
Fig. 2
MODIS Satellite Image of Kurnool  District (22 weeks stacked MODIS Images).
EVI Overview
MODIS 250 m (TERRA/AQUA) 16-daymean EVI data during 25 May
31 Dec2009 is obtained.
Combination of 
givesevery 8 days one data set of EVI; a total of 28 data sets were used for this study. TheMODIS satellite image is shown in Figure2.
Findings of the present study showed the potentials of MODIS data for monitoringenhanced vegetation indices (EVI)dynamics and changes in rainfall at a hightemporal frequency.
During the study period, the 8-day meanEVI values of dry, wet and intermediatezones of the study area varied within arange of 0
1. Hence, it could be concludedthat the observed EVI values reflect thegeneral pattern of land cover over thestudy area in which the natural vegetationsare the prominent land cover type.
Clear difference was observed in ninemandals of the study area among 54mandals of Kurnool district, where lowcorrelation was observed for nine mandalsranging less than 30% and high correlationwas observed for 45 mandals ranging from30 to 92%.
A strong and statistically significantcorrelation exists in 10 mandals of thestudy area varying from 75 to 92% derivedfrom the correlation formula mentionedabove.
In general, the observed patterns of variations in EVI and rainfall in the presentstudy reflected the variations in thevegetation cover over the ground surfacesduring dry and wet spells of the year.
The enhanced vegetation index (EVI) was proposed to reduce both atmospheric andsoil background noise simultaneously [4].
The rainfall pattern from 01 June
30September 2009 is presented in Figure 3.
The rainfall pattern from 01 June
14September 2009 is presented in Figure 4.
The rainfall pattern from 01 June
06September 2009 is presented in Figure 5.
The rainfall pattern from 01 June
22September 2009 is presented in Figure 3.
The data representing district-wise annualrainfall in terms of relative frequencies and percentage of departure from actualrainfall is presented in Table 1.
Annual rainfall for the year 2009 inmillimeters (mm) is presented in Figure 9.
Annual rainfall for the year 2010 inmillimeters (mm) is presented in Figure 9
Fig. 3
Rainfall 01 June-06 September 2009.
Fig. 4
 Rainfall 1 June-14 September 2009.

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