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Syntax of Spoken Arabic Part 1

Syntax of Spoken Arabic Part 1

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Published by Nati Man
guide to the theory behind spoken Arabic part one
guide to the theory behind spoken Arabic part one

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Published by: Nati Man on Jul 03, 2013
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02/19/2015

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VVI
Acknowledgments
and their friends, the Rabbats, and Dr. Jim Nesby; and in Kuwait,
c
Alial-Rayyis,
and especially Mariam
aPAgrouga
and her family.Four people deserve special thanks for suffering through theoriginal dissertation above and beyond the
call
of duty.
Hulya
Canbakalspent many late nights on campus keeping me company and feedingme. Michael Cooperson's reading and comments helped me sharpen-vague ideas, and reassured me that I had something to say. John Eiselesuffered through
illegible'rough
drafts in record time, while somehowteaching me how to present linguistic arguments. Most importantly,my advisor, Professor Wolfhart Heinrichs, had the confidence in me toapprove the project, the patience to wait while I struggled to produce,and the beneficence to extend unwavering support.I have been privileged to study and work with many of the bestpeople in the field. My teachers and mentors at the American Universityin Cairo and Harvard University managed to give me a first-rate educationdespite
less-than-full
cooperation on my
part
at times, and my colleaguesat the Middlebury College School of Arabic 1983-1987 and 1991-1998not only created the
cross-dialectal
language experience that inspiredthis work, but also gave freely of their time and insights.Irrepayable debt is due: John Swanson, who set me on theacademic path in the first place with a big push; my RRAALL cohorts,constant sources of inspiration, moral support, and references; Abbas
el-Tonsi,
who first taught me to pay attention to nuances of languagestructure and meaning; Ahmed Jebari, who iaught me Moroccan without
teaching-thz
mark of a truly gifted teacher; Nuha Khoury and Nasser
Rabbat,
who accepted me as a speaker of Levantine Arabic long beforeI (more or
less)
became one; Ahmed Jebari, Nadia
El-Cheikh',
Mohammad Abd
al-Karim
Taha, and Driss
Cherkaoui,
who out offriendship spent hours on end helping me puzzle through analysisproblems and rough spots on some very poor quality tapes
"with
thekind of dedication to the task that cannot be hired at any price; myparents, who let me get on a plane to Cairo twenty years ago; Danny
Al-Batal,
who graciously accepted apologies for missed dinners,
trips
to the park, soccer and basketball games; and Mahmoud, for all of theabove, and then some.
#*
h
fftr
TABLE OF CONTENTS
'
Notes on Transcription and Glosses xiiiIntroduction 1
1 THE DEFINITENESS CONTINUUM
-
18
1.0 Introduction 181.1 Definite and Indefinite Markers 181.2 Definiteness, Indefiniteness, and Specification 211.3 Definiteness and Individuation
25
1.4 Indefinite-Specific Marking 261.4.1 Indefinite-Specific
Article /Si/
261.4.2 Nunation as Indefinite-Specific Marking 271.5 Definiteness and First-Mention: New Topic 311.6 Definite Marking in Moroccan 361.7 Summary 42
2 NUMBER, AGREEMENT AND POSSESSION 44
2.0 Introduction 442.1 The Dual 452.1.1 Non-specific Dual 452.1.2 Dual in Moroccan 462.1.3 Periphrastic Duals 472.1.4 Dual as New-Topic Marker 492.1.5 Pseudo-Duals 512.1.6 Adverbial Dual 522.2 Agreement Patterns of Plural Nouns 522.3 Agreement Neutralization 622.3.1 Neutralized Adjectival Agreement 622.3.2 Verb-Subject Number Agreement 67
2.4
Genitive and Possessive Constructions 702.4.1
Harning's Study
722.4.2 Formal Motivations for the Use of the GenitiveExponents 742.4.3 Pragmatic Functions 762.4.4 Exponents and Individuation 802.4.5 Sociolinguistic Motivations 83
2.4.6 Moroccan/ dyal/
852.5 Summary 87
 
viii
Contents
3 RELATIVE CLAUSES 89
3.0 Introduction 893.1 Relativization of Indefinite-Specific Nouns with
/illi/... 91
3.2 Non-attributive Relative Clauses 993.3 Aleppan Relative Pronoun
/il/
1013.4
Relativizing Non-specific Temporal
Nouns 1023.5
/illi/as
Complementizer 1043.6 Moroccan Word-Order Relatives 1063.7 Moroccan Relative Pronoun /d/ 1093.8 Summary 110
4 DEMONSTRATIVE ARTICLES AND PRONOUNS 112
4.0 Introduction 1124.1 Proximal and Distal Demonstrative Forms 1134.2 Unstressed Anaphoric Demonstrative Articles 1154.2.1 Syntactic Functions of Demonstrative Articles 1174.2.2 Discourse Functions of the Demonstrative Article ..
119
4.3 Unstressed Distal Demonstratives
t
..
1254.3.1 Ungendered
Moroccan/dik/and/dak/
1254.3.2 Non-specific Temporal
Demonstrative/dik/
1274.4 Demonstrative Pronouns in Post-Nominal Position 1284.4.1 Post-Nominal Demonstratives 1294.4.2
"Double"
Demonstrative Constructions 1314.5 Discourse Functions of Distal Demonstratives 1344.6 Summary 139
5 CATEGORIZING VERBS 141
5.0 Introduction 1415.1 Overview of Verb Forms 1425.2 Auxiliaries and Other Categories 1435.2.1 Verbs
of
Motion 1475.2.2 Temporal Verbs 1485.3 Pseudo-Verbs 1515.3.1 Characteristics of
Pseudo-Verbs
1535.3.2 Pronouns as Copulas 1575.3.3 Pseudo-Verbs in Rural Northwestern Syria 1585.3.4
Loss
of Verbal Status 1595.4 The Participle 1625.5 Summary 164
Contents
ix
6 ASPECT 165
6.0 Introduction 1656.1 Lexical Aspect 1666.2 Formal Aspect 1726.3 Translation and Speaker Point of View 1766.4 Perfect Aspect 1796.4.1 Perfect Aspect and the Participle 1826.4.2' Participles of Motion 1856.5 Aspect in Narrative Contexts 1866.5.1 Foregrounding and Backgrounding 1876.5.2 Aspect and Narrative Contour 1926.5.3
Suddenly, all of a sudden
with Participle 1996.5.4
Suddenly
with the
Imperfective 2006.6 Summary 201
7 TENSE AND TIME REFERENCE 203
7.0 Introduction 2037.1 Relative Time Reference in Arabic 2047.1.1 Adverbs and Relative Time Reference 2057.1.2 Relative Time Reference in Complement Clauses .. 2077.1.3 Discourse Shift of Time Reference: TenseNeutralization 2107.1.4
Kuwaiti/can/:
Historical Present? 2137.2 Temporal Verbs
.-.
2147.2.1 Temporal Verbs in Compound Verb Phrases 2157.2.2 Topicalization of Temporal Verbs 2177.2.3
To start, begin:
Stative and Non-stative 2217.2.4
No
longer,
/ma bqasV, /ma ba'a^)/, /ma"
c
ad/
2237.3 The Participle and Time Reference 2257.4 Summary 229
8 MOOD 231
8.0 Introduction 2318.1 Marked and Unmarked Imperfectives 2338.2 Unmarked Imperfective: Subjunctive 2368.3 Marked Forms of the Imperfective 241
8.3U
Future and Intentive Moods 2418.3.2 Indicative Mood '. 246
^^^—~-«*-
 
m
x
Contents
8.4 The
Multiple
Meanings
of Syrian
fb-l
2488.5
Kuwaiti/dan/:
Modal Auxiliary? 2538.6 Commissive Mood: Marked Use of the Perfective 2558.7 Conditional and Hypothetical Moods 2568.7.1 Conditional Particles in the Dialects 2568.7.2 Hypothetical and
Counterfactual/kan/
2608.7.2.1
/kan/
as
Frozen Hypothetical
Marker 2608.7.2.2 /kan/ with Perfective as Counterfactual Mood .. 2628.7.3 Habitual and Non-hypothetical Conditionals 2648.7.3.1
Alia/, /la///,
when
264
8.7.3.2 /-ma/
-ever
2658.7.4 Aspect and Mood in Conditional Sentences 266
1.8
Summary 276
>
NEGATION 277
>.0 Introduction
'.
277
M
Overview of Negation in the Dialects 277
>.2
Three Strategies of Negation 281'.3 Verbal Negation 2849.3.1 Negation of Pseudo-verbs 2889.3.2 Negation of Participles 2899.3.3 Verbal Negation of Predicates in Moroccan 2919.3.4 Negation of the Imperative: The Prohibitive 2949.3.5 The Negative Copula 296.4 Predicate Negation 301.5 Categorical Negation 3069.5.1 Categorical Negation of the Verb Phrase 3079.5.2 Categorical Negation of Single Sentence Elements 3099.5.3 Categorical Negation of Coordinated Structures 309.6 Summary 313
9
SENTENCE TYPOLOGY 315
3.0
Introduction 315).l Sentence Typology
316
10.1.1 Structural Evidence
for
the Primacy
of
VSO 31910.1.2 Typological Frequency and Discourse Type 320).2 Topic- and Subject-Prominent Sentence Structures 32910.2.1 Spoken Arabic as a Topic-Prominent Language .... 33010.2.2 Temporal Frame as Topic 33710.2.3
Topical Circumstantial
Clauses
(/half)
339
Contents
XI
10.3 Variation in Word Order: Information packaging 34210.3.1 Right-Dislocated Subjects: New Information 34310.3.2 Pronoun Subject Position 34410.3.3 Object-Initial Sentences 34810.3.3.1 Topic-prominent OV: Object as Topic 34910.3.3.2 Subject-Prominent OV: Contrastive Function 34910.3.4 Predicate-Subject Inversion 35210.4 Syrian
Object-Marker/la-/:
Resumptive Topic 353
10.5
The
Ethical
Dative: Point of View and Empathy 35910.6 Summary 361Conclusions 363Appendix 1: Informants 376Appendix 2: TextsMorocco 377Egypt 388Syria 395Kuwait 409References 421Subject Index 433Author Index 441
TABLES
Table 1-1 Khan's Hierarchies of Individuation 22Table 1-2 Features Affecting Individuation 24Table 2-1 Genitive Exponents 72Table 4-1 Proximal Demonstrative Pronouns 114Table 4-2 Distal Demonstrative Pronouns 114Table
4-3
Unstressed Demonstrative Articles 115Table 5-1 Time Reference
with/kan/
150Table 6-1 Classification of Lexical Aspect 168Table 6-2 Lexical Aspect and the Participle 171Table 6-3 Narrative Contour Verbs 193Table 7-1 Temporal Verbs 215Table 8-1 Moods in the Dialects 232Table 8-2 Imperfective Markers 234Table 8-3 Indicative Markers 246Table 8-4 Meanings
of Syrian /b-/
250
Table &-5
Conditional Particles 257Table 9-1 Particles of Negation 282Table 9-2 The Negative Copula 296
mm

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