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People & Land - Volume 2 Number 1 - Summer 1974 OCR Reduced

People & Land - Volume 2 Number 1 - Summer 1974 OCR Reduced

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Published by Raj Patel
Magazine for land reform in the United States.
Magazine for land reform in the United States.

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Published by: Raj Patel on Jul 04, 2013
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11/15/2013

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~
THE NEWSPAPEROF THE
LAND
REFORM MOVEMENT
PER~
SEC.
GCT
22
t975
NYPL
Who
Controls the
Surface?
Surface rights and mineral rights are
not
thesame thing.UndertheHomestead Act and
other
public landlaws,many settlersacquired titleto the surface
of
their land,whilethe governmentretainedsome
or
all
of
themineralrights.FrequentlytheWestern railroads, which were grantedmillions
of
acres
of
land
in
thelate19th century, sold the surface rightsto settlers
but
not
the mineral rights.Ina
few
cases,Indiantribes were allowedto keepsubsur face rightswhilebeing forcedto relinquishsurface rights.In the mountains
of
easternKentucky, anothermethod
of
separating surfaceandsubsurface rightsarose. Agents and"lease-hounds"roamed thecountryside aroundthe
tum
of
the
century
,persuading thousands
of
uneducated mountaineersto signtheir
Xs
toso-called
"broadform"
deeds.Thesedeedsconveyed all coal, stone,iron,oil, gas,min eral waters and
other
"subterranean
products"
tothe agent, who
in
turn soldthemtominingcom panies.Thedeeds also granted "fullpowerand right to enter upon saidland"anddoanythin_g necessaryorconvenient" to removetheminerals from it.Until the development
of
modernstripminingtechniques, the separation
of
surfaceand mineralrights was
not
a serious problem. Subsurfaceowners couldgenerally
extract
their minerals
without
causingundue destruction
of
thesurface.Theadvent
of
stripminingchanged things.
.,..
Nowthequestion
of
whoserightshave preference,
A),
thesurface
or
subsurface owner, hasbecomea
~ff
burning issue
in
Appalachia and theWest.
f·
In
Kentuck
y,
the
pattern
hasbeen forstrip_i\
tL•-
miners, broad form deed
in
hand,
to
"req
uest
~
.•
permission to tearupamountaineer'sland.Ine-, change for his
"co
nsent"they usuallyoffer anom inal compensation.
If
the ownerdoes
not
consent,thecompaniescome
in
anyway,usingthe deed's authorization todo anything"necessary
or
con-venient"
to
get attheircoal.
Continued
on
page 4.
FRONTCOVER
:
Family
farmstead.Neighbors exchange
labor,
by
an
old custom
.
From
"Dorothea
Lange
Look
s
at
the
American
Country
Woman."
JLN
/C.-!'2.7
"'
.
 
Paae 2
THE HARDER THEY FALL
During my present visit to theUnited States, a friend has
given
me acopy
of
People
&
Land
to
read.
I
have found theissueinteresting andinformative, and so much devoted tosome
of
my major concerns aboutland and its social implications that
I
have decided to get in touch with you.
I
am
presently involved
in
a rather
large
movement
of
several thousandsugar workers on threesugarestatesthat
People
&
Land
is
irresistible andindispensable.
My
fervent thanks to your staffwho demonstrated that educationalpropaganda can be both interestingand beautiful.
Alexander
Crosby
Quakertown,
Pa.
CRUELTY TO
ANIMALS
One
of
the effects
of
the entry
of
They
are
outdoors on the ground theway hogs should
be
and
if
the McQuoidproject goes in, Marion Aumann andseveral
of
our other neighbors will bebadly hurt.-
I
believe that land reform
is
one
of
the key environmental-social-economic-political keys to survival in ournation and plan continued financialand printed support.
·
~·
·
People.
cl
Land/Summer
1974
NORTHWEST
TERRITORY
Your second issue was
as
exciting
as
the first. Fantastic!
We
would like
to
be included inyour list
of
"groups to do it with."Our organization has been working forthree years, concerning ourselves withthe food and agriculture industriesand how they affect the social andphysical envjronment.
We
lobbied intensively during thelast legislature for three food labelingbills. We're involved in various educational projects and
we
publishamonthly newsletter.Maybe some day soon there'll
be
aNorthwest Conference on Landon the island
of
Jamaica. This move·ment, which has
as
its immediategoalthe takeover
of
the estates by theworkers and the establishment
of
cooperative, worker-owned farms,
is
for
me
and some
of
my associates
simply_
one aspect
of
a larger movement toward major land reform on the islanlib)-large corporations into agriculture hasbeen the adoption
of
factory-styleproduction
of
poultry, eggs, pork, etc.Quite apart from the dangers to health
of
some
of
these products, there
is
a
qu~sti~
I!,
of
1:~
uelty,
since many experts-_
behe:Ve
that dbmestic animals sufferfrom close coqfinement.
My
weekly column Eco-Action hasbeen appearing
in
Schenectady suburban and Troy, N.Y. papers since1970. I
am
presently trying to get itsyndicated in the Midwest.
It
discus
ses
various environmental topics fromhousehold to international, alwayswith a "what can you do?" paragraphsuggesting specific reader action.
By
the way, why are you locatedin San Francisco?
We
can't affordto lose you to a quake!Reform?
-Jere
Grimm
Consumers'
FoodCouncil
Portland,
Ore.
am
defmitely interested
in
re-
(,
1
':,
ceiving future issues
of
People'
&
Land.
James
Phillips
""
~ton,
Jamaica
FARM-CITY LINKS
We
are involved in a food cooperative project with small truck farmers in some
of
the bottom landaro\md Chicago.Theyhave had nomarket for their produce, being unable to compete with the large combines. The urban consumers in ourprogram are for the most part welfare recipients and therefore unableto buy quality produce in sufficientquantity for their families.Each group understands the other.Many
of
the urban poor
~
Chicago'spublic housing have recently comefrom the
South-and
the poor, blackfarmers in Kankakee County
all
haverelatives in the city.
We
train both the urban and ruralpoor
in
the skills necessary
to
establish and maintain cooperatives. Mostimportantly for the success
of
theprogram, we train them together.Workshops are held either on thefarm or in the city,
but
with boththe farmers and city residentstogether.
By
the way,
People
&
Land
is
notonly
ari
invaluable source
of
information on land reform,
but
in bothlayout and literary style
it
is
a journalistic achievement
of
the highestquality.
Thomas
W.
Heaney
A<;sistant
Dean
The
Loop
College
Olicago,Dlinois
NO RESISTANCE
I ha':e been letting subscriptionslapse because I can't fmd time toread what I get. How my name goton your mailing list I'll never know,
but
your second issue persua-des me
~-
·-
!
._
:Peter
Singer
;
New
York,
N.Y.
-Deonne
Orvis
I received your newspaper
People
GOOD
PAPER
urnt
Hills,
N.Y.
__-_
iiSTEN
,-
WAGUE
&
Land
and think
it
an
excellent Thank
ypu
and your organizationvehicle for getting across the sub-
ON
THE
RO
.
AD
for the very tasty packet
of
materialsstance
of
the ideas
of
the radical land Your materials are quite interest-which I have gone through once andreform movement. After devouring ing and
we
appreciate having them will
go
through several times, prepar-it, I sent
it
on to the state League
of
made available to us. ing myself for enlistment in yourWomen Voters land-use chairwoma-n.
...
 
--+
--
---1--11"-
--L•--
~w.H-s
-+
..caJ
··use··-.
·-
..-..e
-
pJ:t:ttH«nu
-with eet'peratiu
,.,.
..
....
Unfortunately, when I brought up
that
they do
not
want to work and I
am
a retired United Church
of
at a land
use
workshop the fact that have many more "chiefs than Indians." Christ pastor, serving
as
an
assistantthere
is
a radical land reform move-Corporations just
don't
understand in a Presbyterian church where ourment a-going, nobody present seemed agriculture and probably will never senior pastor
is
running for Congress,to pick up the cue. I fear
it
will be become involved except those who
so
you can
see
what kind
of
outgoingsome time before those who are mak-are actually producing food such
as
Christianity I
am
involved in.
ing
decisions on the land become aware Green Giant in Minnesota. It has recently become very clear
of
the other factors they are going to There
is
the old quote that "farm-to me that the key to poverty, andhave to consider
in
the future.ing looks nice when you are driving
espe~ially
to inflation,
is
in land useI look forward to future issues. down the road." and land values. I
see
it primarily
in
Oaire
Schiff
Carlo.
Norberg
urban matters, but recognize the
Summit,
New
Jersey ExecutiveVice-president
great importance
of
reform
in
rural
Ameri
Soci
f
n
land tenure too.
PENNSYLVANIA
EXPOSED
can
ety
o
rann
anagers
&
Rural Appraisers
I commend your movement forYouriourpal
is
yeryimpressive and
Umver, Colorado
printing
People
&
Land
on good pa-greatly needed.
The;co.ordination
~
f
,per,
so
that
we
can pass around copies.efforts around the country and
the
-
:_
'-
'
BY
GEORGE
(CONT.)
Ed
Cllrenstein
exchange
of
information should facili-It's great
to
know the land reformtate the formation
of
a nationwide
co-
Eureka,
California
movement in the U.S.
is
picking upalition
to
redirect land usage and con-steam. For many years we've ignored
BULK
ORDER
trol At the very least
1·t
w1
11
e
We
are
so
impressed and
hopes:.ul
of
· xpose our natural surroundings,
but
now
''
Sl
.tuati·ons such
as
Pennsylv·'
1
the influence possibilities
ofP.eople
an1a
s, peop e are getting angry at their forcedwhere business interests have · d
&
Land.
We
would like to share it
semtu
e on the land, and are bemn-d
1
c-
throughout our area
of
south Flon·daconspire
to
e ect a strip miner
as
ning to do something about it.head
of
the state's environmental I recommend you pay serious at-with the
few
"open"
book shops andreview board. tention to Richard Pensack's letter in other dealers, even
if
need
be
at our
Rick
Cohen,
the Winter 1974 issue. A land move-expense.
Editorial
Board
Enclosed
is
our check for ten dol-ment, however well intentioned,
is
Planning Comment
useless unless it arms itself with a Iars. Please consider this letter a pur-
Philadelphia
Pa
chase order for a regular bulk order,·little fundamental economics.
of
at least ten copies (we could
use-
BEWARE
THE
QUAKE
If
each
of
your staff were to take fully distribute about twenty).Here
is
my membership for the a course at the Henry George School,Coalition, taken
out
of
our family you would surely have a clearer
view Olarles
Calamus
farm account because
an
item in
of
where the land reform movement
Naples,
florida
People
&
Land
which arrived today should
go
from here. The land value
Please continue
to
send us
affects us directly.-tax is a fighting creed, an idea that
~orrespondence,
ideas, news,
Our honest hard-working young inspires citizens to action.
Items, photos, cartoons, etc.
n·ghb
1
ld
And
don't
forget to pass·
e1
or earns wou guess about a
George
W.
Gentes
third
of
his income from feeding hogs.
Montreal, Canada
PEOPLE
&
LAND
around tofriends and colleagues.
 
Peo
74
EDITORIAL
Wanted: Strategy
for
Land
Refonn
T
he land reform movement in America,
or at
leastthe
most
recent phase
of it,
is now several years old.
It
is a diverse movement, with
many
groups and individuals pursuing different, though parallel, objectives. Farmworkers struggling for union representation, familyfarmers trying
to
stay on the landinthe face
of
corporate integrators and tax-loss syndicates, Appalachianmountaineers and Western ranchers battling energy companies
that
want
to
strip mine their land, native Americans struggling
to
protect
their land and heritage, environmentalists striving for a new land ethic, old-timerural residents fighting tourist developments and out-ofstate speculators, young homesteaders going back
to
theland, and even backyard
gardeners-
all are part
of
thenew land reform movement. Increasingly,
they
see theirseparate concerns as
part
of
a common struggle.What unites the various elements
of
the land reformmovement is a shared set
of
values
about
land andpeople's relation
to
land.
We
don't
see land -
or
people-
as
commodities
to
be bought, sold and exploited forprivate profit.
We
see land
as
a gift
of
nature
to
be caredfor, stewarded and shared.
We
believe
that, for
whateverpsychological
or
mystical reasons, people need
to
liveclose
to
the land, in
~ommunities
that
are healthy andnon-exploitative.
We
have
common
enemies: the abusers
of
people and land,
the
profiteers and those
who
servetheir interests. And we've won some victories: an almostcertain-to-pass law against unrestricted strip mining, anticorporate farming laws in several Midwest states, anAlaska native claims settlement, a farmworker strike inCalifornia and a
woodcutter
strike in Mississippi, a fewlawsuits here and there, and perhaps
most important,
a growing awareness -among lawmakers, journalists,teachers and the public generally -that we
exist.
The problem
that
provokes this editorial has
to do
with
strategy.
While all
of
us in the land reform movement have similar goals, the problem we face is how
to
get there. And here we
encounter
a harsh reality: theland reform movement lacks power. Some
of
us in themovement are have-littles; many are have-nots. Thepeople with power in this country are the have-lots -the same people who
profit
from abuse
of
land andpeople. So
what
can we do?Obviously, we have
to
maximize
what
power we have
by
getting together
and
helping each
other's
struggles.This does
not
mean we have
to
love each other.
It
just
means
that
we have
to
understand each
other, our
different
yet
related problems, and
our common
enemies
and be willing
to
come
to
each
other's
aid.The specifics
of
this are more difficult
to
statethanthe general principles. Clearly
w~
must attack
those institutions, laws and people
that
stand in the way
of
the
better
society we envisage.
At
the same time we're attacking,
we
should also be building-showing
that
al
teenatives
are
possible, and learning
to
deal
with
some
of
the obstacles
that
stand in the way
of
alternatives.These different aspects
of
struggle can take
many
forms.On the attack side, there are lawsuits,statutes
to
be pushed through Congress and the state legislatures,education and public advocacy. There's also the possibility, suggested
by
James Lee in this issue (page 17),
of
taking
land.
But
how?On the build side, there are land trusts, land banks,cooperatives,
community
gardens and alternative energysystems
that
need
to
be developed and multiplied.The strategic question we would like
to
pose
is:
Whatare the best ways
to
maximize the impact
of
these activities? Are there any particular efforts that the land
re-
form movement should concentrate
on next?
Should we
join
together
to
push for a particular piece
of
legislation -e.g., a national family farm act, or tax reforms? Shouldwe focus on education, in the broadest sense
of
that
term?
Or
should
we
work
to
elect candidates at the local, stateor even presiden tiallevel?
People
&
Land
would like to hear from readers
on
thisquestion. We'd like
to
initiate a serious strategic dialogue.Write
to
us and we'll
print your
thoughts in the
next
issue.
let
us state that more strongly.
We
need
your
input
of
ideas. Unless those
of
us
in
the land reform movementcommunicate actively with each
other
-through thismedium and
others-
we
won't
be able
to
maximize
our
impact on the nation.
(ll
CONTENTS
Who Controls the Surface?Strip Mining4Western Coal: Leased and Lost4Alternative EnergySources
5
Oil Shale Giveaway
5
The 160-Acre Limit Ditched Again6Why
lettuce
Costs More6Dakotans Battle
to
Save
Farms
7Tax Loss Farmers7Two Views
on
Land Use Planning8Forest Service Robs Appalachia9Passing On The Land
10
States Ban Corporate Farms10Open Space Tax Breaks Are Bad
11
Harris Running for President
11
A Grim Look at
Poultry Industry
12
Big
Co-ops Forget Origins14Cock and Bull Subsidies14Pig Swindle
15
Middlemen LooseQ Their Belts
15
Southern Land Conference16Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway17Churches
on
the Land Issue17
Short
Notes18
Photo
Contest18Farmworkers Push Boycott18Sugar Workers and the USDA19Indians Battle for Land
20
La Clinica
Serves the People
20
Urban Homesteading
21
City Folks
Hit
the Sod21List
of
Active Groups22Goldmark's New Rural Society23
PEOPLE
&LAND
NEWSPAPER
OF
THE LANDREFORM MOVEMENTVolume2/Number1·Summer 1974 Published by the Center for RuralStudies, 345 Franklin Street, SanFrancisco, California 941 02.
Editors this issue:
Peter Barnes, HughGardner, Derek Shearer
Art:
Peter Barnes, Barbara Garza,Karen Ohmans
Photography:
Earl
Dotter,
Bob Fitch,T.L. Gettings, Pat Goudvis, BobGriffiths, Dorothea Lange, RichMadson, Barbara Traisman,Merrill Shindler
Contributors:
George Ballis, DouglasCrooks, Jim Draper,
Pat
Goudvis,Mike Halpin, Jim Hightower,Richard Lamm,
John
McClaughry,Angus McDonald, Lee Peifer, JonRowe, Marty Strange
Typography:
Janet
ChannMailed free
to
persons in
the
landreform movement. Additional copies60 cents. Bulk rates
upon
request.Printed
at
Rapid Printers
&
Lithographers, Hayward, California -aunion shop -
on
45 lb.
book
stockfrom Boise Cascade. Black and colorinks from Cal/lnk, a division
of
Tenneco.Page 3

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