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[Iraj Bashiri] the Samanids & the Revival of the Civilisation of Iranian Peoples_1998

[Iraj Bashiri] the Samanids & the Revival of the Civilisation of Iranian Peoples_1998

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The Samanids &the Revival of theCivilisation of Iranian Peoples
English versionIRAJ BASHIRI1998, Dushanbe
 
The Samanids and the Revival
of
theCivilization
of
Iranian Peoples
(English version)Written, Edited, Translated
and
Supervised by
Iraj Bashiri
Honorary
Doctor, Tajikistan State UniversityProfessor, University
of
Minnesota, USASymposium Articles CompiledbyAskarali RajabzadaThis volume contains the results
of
the most recentstudies on the political, philosophical, scientific, lit-erary, and artistic achievements
of
the Samanid Era.
The
contributors, present-day scholars
of
the Repub-lic, assess the contributions
of
their predecessors asthey themselves
stand
on the threshold
of
a new age
of
independence. This bold initiative, it
is
hoped,will become a means for the further enrichment
and
growth
of
Tajik culture.Dushanbe, 1998
DS
'7
t:::-
 
C
/
0.:5b
CONTENTS
11q
8
Preface ixIn Place
of
an
IntroductionxiPart
I:
Samanid Renaissance and Establishment
of
Tajik Identity
Arabs and Non-Arabs 3Struggle for Independence
10
Samanid Achievements 16Conclusion 28
Part II: Symposium Articles
Ne'matov,
N.
The Samanid State: A Unique Phenomenon
of
History
31
Sa'idmoradov,
H.
Social and Political Relations During the Samanid Era 40Ya'qubsha,
U.
The Doctrine
of
Self-consciousness 45Bashiri,
I.
The Turk-Tajik Conflict: Ancient Roots 57Alimov,
K.
Theology and Mysticism During the Samanid Era 68Isamatov,
M.
Formation
of
National Historiography 78Davudov,
D.
Numismatics and Cash Transactions 85Baimatov,
L.
Formation
of
Tajik National Historiography 92Abdullaev, Sh. Religious Practices Under the Samanids
101
Kameli,
A.
State
of
the Sciences in the Epoch
of
the Samanids 112Sultanzada,
M.
Books and Libraries of
the
Samanid
Era
123Qasimova,
M.
Formation
of
the
Literary Language 128Hadizada,
R.
Rudaki and the New Era of Persian Literature 140Nuraliev,
U.
Medicine and Medical Care Under
the
Samanids
149
Rajabzada,
A.
Tradition Versus Innovation in Music 168Maitdinova,
G.
Apparel During the Samanid Era 174Rahmatullaeva,
S.
The Peculiarities of Sarnanid Decorative Architecture
179
Mulla-Ahmad,
M.
Humanitarian Issues in the Samanid State 185Nazirov,
U.
The Invention
of
the
Ruba'i
at 194Ahrarl,
Z.
Satire and Pleasantry in Samanid Prose Literature 204Shirmuhammadian.B. Folklore in Samanid Civilization 213Rahmani,
R.
Popular
Stori.es
About the Samanids 222
Part III: From the Manghits to a Democratic State
From the Manghits
to
the Soviets 235The History
of
the Manghit
Amirs
of
Bukhara I 243The Vosse Uprising 255The History
of
the Manghit
Amirs
of
Bukhara
II
266Soviet Tajikistan 273Simmering Issues 287Conclusion
302
Bibliography 305Index
317
The outlined section is what is contained in this PDF document
 
THE
SAMANID
STATE:
A
UNIOUE
PHENOMENON
OF
HISTORY
I.
Factors Contributing to the Revival
Two factors brought about the development and growth that resulted inthe revival
of
the unique and powerful state
of
the Samanids. The firstfactor was related to the dispersion
of
the Tajiks across a vast area duringthe transitory rule
of
the Hephthalites and
of
the Western Turks (flfth-eighth centuries). The
main
aim
of
these governments was imposition andcollection
of
taxes. The second factor was related to
the
destructive incur-sions
of
the military-cum-religious rule
of
the Arabs under the Umayyidsand the Abbasids (seventh-eighth centuries). This destructive force had anagenda
of
its own which included social upheaval, an oppressive politicalsystem, economic plunder, and a new interpretation
of
the religion
of
Islam. Using this new dispensation, the Muslims then set about eliminat-ing a linguistic, cultural, and spiritual milieu that was many times superior·to what they espoused.
In
addition, at that time the Tajik nation was still inits fonnative stage, uniting the peoples
of
the Bakhtar, the inhabitants
of
Ferghana, and the Sakas.
It
was this circumstance that, in time, evolvedinto a unique, international ideology buttressed by appropriate social,political, and spiritual dimensions.
It
should be borne in mind that this movement did not appear in avacuum. A series
of
uprisings, including the rise
of
the
Khawarij.
heinsurrection
of
Abu Muslim, the immense movement
of
the followers
of
al-Muqanna', the
Sefidjamigan
(white robes); all
of
these were part andparcel
of
the same evolving ideology. These movements enjoyed thesupport
of
a large spectrum
of
people, including the
'avam
(public), Le.,artists, peasants, and bazaaris,as well
as
the traditional ruling clerics, eventhe local rulers themselves.Secular and spiritual intellectuals, in cooperation, organized a veryexact and steady program usually referred to
as
the
Shu'ubiyyah.
Thethrust of their efforts was on focusing the divergent ideologies prevalent atthe time
on
a sense
of
national consciousness. In other words, theywished to emphasize the greatness
of
the cultures
of
the conquered peo-
ples-Iran,
Khurasan, and
Transoxiana-in
comparison to the culture
of
the conquerors. That is why an effort was made to create the valuableworks that benefit us today in the Arabic language. These works includeresearch on history, sciences, and literature.
It
was the publication
of
theseworks that stimulated the Arab caliphs' interest in
poetry,
music,
adab.
lin-guistics, mathematics, astronomy, and other artistic and scientific endeav-

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