the departmental PCs. The laboratory equipment available included: 1. HP Model 4195A Network/Spectrum Analyzer2.One of the following:a.MATEC RF tone burst ultrasonic generator and receiver (10 to90 MHz) b.RITEC RAM 10000 tone burst ultrasonic generator and receiver(1 to 100 MHz)c.UTEX UT 320/340 Pulser/receiver or equivalent, such as thoseproduced by Panametrics or Metrotek (tone burst systems areideal for this type of experiment as they allow easy control andvariation of the frequency and quantitative veriﬁcation of frequency-dependent effects)3.Standard RF attenuators, cables, etc.4.Laboratory oscilloscope, ideally digital scope with FFT capability,such as the 300 MHz LeCroy digital oscilloscopeA list of typical projects is given below, with notes on particular aspects thatcan be easily investigated and compared with theory. This list is by no meansexhaustive, and it is easy to extend it by the procurement of modest addi-tional resources, such as focusing transducers, additional buffer rods, meansof temperature variation and control, magnetic ﬁeld etc.1.Transducer characterizationIt is useful to obtain a collection of piezoelectric transducers fromvarious sources. Commercially packaged resonators can easily beobtained in the range 1 to 20 MHz, as can unmounted transducers,longitudinal or transverse, with either fundamental or overtonepolish from suppliers such as Valpey Fisher Inc. In the latter case,LiNbO
transducers with a fundamental in the range of 5 to 15 MHz and with overtone polish are the most convenient choice, typically5 or 6 mm in diameter. Transducer characterization is best made with respect to a well-deﬁned equivalent circuit. This could be a series resonant circuit inparallel with the static capacitance (Butterworth–Van Dyke equiv-alent circuit for resonators) or the full Mason Model for a loadedtransducer. Suggested experiments include:a.Characterization of the resonance of an unloaded transducer(resonator) using the network analyzer; determination of trans-ducer parameters by measurement of amplitude and phaseresponse, as well as series and parallel resonant frequencies; iden-tiﬁcation of harmonic frequencies; effects of liquid loading on theresonance for both longitudinal and transverse polarization.
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