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Published by Doroteea Teoibas

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Published by: Doroteea Teoibas on Jul 04, 2013
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 Appendix C
 Complementary Laboratory Experiments
 A system of group projects was developed during the evolution of the subjectmatter of this book when used for teaching purposes. One format involvedthe use of weekly problem sets for the fundamental part of the material(Chapters 2 through 10), similar in type and level to the questions found atthe end of these chapters. During the second part of the course, two alter-native schemes were used. One involved the assignment of term papers ona special topic, examples of which are given at the end of this section. Theother, and more elaborate approach, consisted of experimental projects.These projects were open-ended as opposed to set-piece laboratory experi-ments. What was actually done depended on the students’ backgrounds,availability of equipment, and qualified instructors. Hence it is stressed thatthe notes given below should be seen as guidelines or suggestions as to howa suitable laboratory component could be set up and not as formal, ready-to-use laboratory methodology descriptions.For this second part of the course, students were divided into teams of two or three. A term project was carried out by each team, enabling thestudents to go more in depth in a given area than they could have doneotherwise. Students were asked to divide up tasks in theory/computer cal-culation on the one hand and experimental testing on the other. Typicalsubject areas are given below. The approach was very flexible, a particularaspect being worked out in consultation with the teacher, and the actualwork carried out under the guidance of a graduate student. The projectswere for approximately 1 month, after which the group compiled a singlereport synthesising the work of all of the participants. The work was thenpresented in a series of short oral presentations; instruction was given toassist in preparing the report and making the presentation, which was of alength and style similar to that of conference presentations. The advantageof this approach was that students were generally very motivated to learnthe theoretical part and to carry out a successful project. Learning to workin a team and acquiring communication skills were other advantages of thisapproach.The required material was largely accessible from research laboratories.Computing requirements were modest and in all cases could be met with
© 2002 b CRC Press LLC
 the departmental PCs. The laboratory equipment available included: 1. HP Model 4195A Network/Spectrum Analyzer2.One of the following:a.MATEC RF tone burst ultrasonic generator and receiver (10 to90 MHz) b.RITEC RAM 10000 tone burst ultrasonic generator and receiver(1 to 100 MHz)c.UTEX UT 320/340 Pulser/receiver or equivalent, such as thoseproduced by Panametrics or Metrotek (tone burst systems areideal for this type of experiment as they allow easy control andvariation of the frequency and quantitative verification of frequency-dependent effects)3.Standard RF attenuators, cables, etc.4.Laboratory oscilloscope, ideally digital scope with FFT capability,such as the 300 MHz LeCroy digital oscilloscopeA list of typical projects is given below, with notes on particular aspects thatcan be easily investigated and compared with theory. This list is by no meansexhaustive, and it is easy to extend it by the procurement of modest addi-tional resources, such as focusing transducers, additional buffer rods, meansof temperature variation and control, magnetic field etc.1.Transducer characterizationIt is useful to obtain a collection of piezoelectric transducers fromvarious sources. Commercially packaged resonators can easily beobtained in the range 1 to 20 MHz, as can unmounted transducers,longitudinal or transverse, with either fundamental or overtonepolish from suppliers such as Valpey Fisher Inc. In the latter case,LiNbO
 transducers with a fundamental in the range of 5 to 15 MHz and with overtone polish are the most convenient choice, typically5 or 6 mm in diameter. Transducer characterization is best made with respect to a well-defined equivalent circuit. This could be a series resonant circuit inparallel with the static capacitance (Butterworth–Van Dyke equiv-alent circuit for resonators) or the full Mason Model for a loadedtransducer. Suggested experiments include:a.Characterization of the resonance of an unloaded transducer(resonator) using the network analyzer; determination of trans-ducer parameters by measurement of amplitude and phaseresponse, as well as series and parallel resonant frequencies; iden-tification of harmonic frequencies; effects of liquid loading on theresonance for both longitudinal and transverse polarization.
© 2002 b CRC Press LLC
 b. Frequency response of a transducer glued to a buffer rod, withair loading on the opposite face. Points to verify include:(i)Frequency response of the odd harmonics.(ii)Use of inductors/RF transformers to increase the transducerresponse.(iii)Observation of echoes in the buffer rod.(iv)Comparison of shape of the first echo with that of the ex-citing RF pulse; effect of bond quality on the echo shape.2.Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) propagationExperiments in this section are based around the use of a trans-ducer mounted on the end of a buffer rod. Ideally, buffer rods madeof materials such as fused quartz, sapphire, etc. can be obtainedwith end faces optically polished and parallel from suppliers suchas Valpey–Fisher. Otherwise, for studies in the low MHz range, itis possible to machine and polish the end faces of materials suchas perspex, duraluminium, brass, stainless steel, etc., using stan-dard workshop practices to obtain usable echo trains. Duralu-minium is particularly useful due to its low attenuation and itsmachinability. The buffer rod should have dimensions of the order of 1 cm inlength and 1 cm in diameter; these dimensions are not critical andshould be chosen so that the rod diameter is significantly greaterthan that of the transducer, with the buffer long enough so thatclearly separated, nonoverlapping echoes are observed on the oscil-loscope. Longitudinal transducers with overtone polish and a fun-damental frequency of 5 or 10 MHz are recommended for theexperiments of this section. Such experiments include:a.Mount the transducer on the end of the buffer rod with a suit-able ultrasonic couplant; vacuum grease or silicon oil are con-venient, as they give a good bond at room temperature whichis stable for a few hours and is easily changed. The transducer bond can be improved by wringing it onto the buffer surfaceusing a soft rubber eraser, for example. b.Tuning the generator to the transducer fundamental frequency;observing echoes. Existence or not of an exponential decay of the echo amplitudes should be registered. Transducer bond can be optimized to give maximum echo amplitude.c.Estimation of 
 and comparison with the handbook value; estimation of absolute and relative error.d.Using the same transducer bond as above, steps (b) and (c) should be repeated at odd harmonic frequencies up to the maximumattainable values with the ultrasonic generator used. Variationof the overall modulation of the echo train and the number of 
© 2002 b CRC Press LLC

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