International Journal of Research in Computer ScienceeISSN 2249-82
Volume 3 Issue 4 (2013) pp. 1-7www.ijorcs.org, A Unit of White Globe Publicationsdoi: 10.7815/ijorcs.34.2013.067
CONGESTION PREDICTION AND ADAPTIVERATE ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUE FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
Mrs. U. Urathal alias Sri Swathiga
, Dr. C. Chandrasekar
Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science D.R.B.C.C.C Hindu College, Pattabiram, Chennai, INDIA E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science, Periyar University, Salem, INDIA
In general, nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are equipped with limited batteryand computation capabilities but the occurrence of congestion consumes more energy and computation power by retransmitting the data packets. Thus,congestion should be regulated to improve network performance. In this paper, we propose a congestion prediction and adaptive rate adjustment technique for Wireless Sensor Networks. This technique predictscongestion level using fuzzy logic system. Node degree,data arrival rate and queue length are taken as inputsto the fuzzy system and congestion level is obtained asan outcome. When the congestion level is amidst moderate and maximum ranges, adaptive rateadjustment technique is triggered. Our technique prevents congestion by controlling data sending rateand also avoids unsolicited packet losses. Bysimulation, we prove the proficiency our technique. It increases system throughput and network performancesignificantly.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs),Congestion Prediction, Adaptive Rate Adjustment Technique.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
The network with a group of tiny nodes with theabilities of sensing, computation and wirelesscommunication is termed as Wireless Sensor Networks(WSNs). Each node is responsible of sensing and collecting various attributes such as temperature, pressure, sound and vibration from the sensing field.Finally, the collected information is forwarded to theBase Station (BS).  In order to monitor the real-world environment, numerous numbers of smalldevices with a potential of sensing, processing, and communication are present in the wireless sensor networks. In future, wireless sensor networks arecapable of playing a major role in critical militarysurveillance applications, forest fire monitoring and building security monitoring. In immense field theoperational conditions are often harsh or evenaggressive and so numerous sensor nodes are deployed to monitor the field. 
Congestion in WSN
In general, sensor nodes are included with stringentcomputation capability, battery power and memoryspace. The occurrence of congestion in the network consumes an extra energy of the network by packetcollapse and retransmission of packets. In densenetwork, the simultaneous transmission of packetscauses interference and thereby packet drops due tocongestion.  Some of the issues of congestion inWSN are described below,
Due to congestion, there occur buffer drops and increased delays in the traditional wired networksand cellular wireless networks.
The traffic from various parts of the network leadsto congestion which in turn degrades the radiochannel quality .
For the nodes which traverse a significant number of hops, the traffic flow becomes unfair and thisaffects the performance and the lifetime of thenetwork. There are certain limitations in wirelesssensor networks based on the energy, memory and bandwidth .
The link-level congestion causes increase in packetservice time and decrease in link utilization. Energyefficiency and QoS is affected by both thesecongestions which decreases lifetime of thewireless sensor networks .
Congestion Control Techniques
A congestion control technique which uses thequeue length as an indication of congestion degree was proposed named as Queue based Congestion ControlProtocol with Priority Support (QCCP-PS). Priorityindex and current congestion degree are taken as mainmetrics for rate assignment to each traffic source .In wired local-area, wide-area networks and in sensor