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Congestion Prediction and Adaptive Rate Adjustment Technique for Wireless Sensor Networks

Congestion Prediction and Adaptive Rate Adjustment Technique for Wireless Sensor Networks

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In general, nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are equipped with limited battery and computation capabilities but the occurrence of congestion consumes more energy and computation power by retransmitting the data packets. Thus, congestion should be regulated to improve network performance. In this paper, we propose a congestion prediction and adaptive rate adjustment technique for Wireless Sensor Networks. This technique predicts congestion level using fuzzy logic system. Node degree, data arrival rate and queue length are taken as inputs to the fuzzy system and congestion level is obtained as an outcome. When the congestion level is amidst moderate and maximum ranges, adaptive rate adjustment technique is triggered. Our technique prevents congestion by controlling data sending rate and also avoids unsolicited packet losses. By simulation, we prove the proficiency our technique. It increases system throughput and network performance significantly.
In general, nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are equipped with limited battery and computation capabilities but the occurrence of congestion consumes more energy and computation power by retransmitting the data packets. Thus, congestion should be regulated to improve network performance. In this paper, we propose a congestion prediction and adaptive rate adjustment technique for Wireless Sensor Networks. This technique predicts congestion level using fuzzy logic system. Node degree, data arrival rate and queue length are taken as inputs to the fuzzy system and congestion level is obtained as an outcome. When the congestion level is amidst moderate and maximum ranges, adaptive rate adjustment technique is triggered. Our technique prevents congestion by controlling data sending rate and also avoids unsolicited packet losses. By simulation, we prove the proficiency our technique. It increases system throughput and network performance significantly.

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Published by: White Globe Publications (IJORCS) on Jul 06, 2013
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07/01/2014

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International Journal of Research in Computer ScienceeISSN 2249-82
65
Volume 3 Issue 2 (2013) pp. 9-18www.ijorcs.org, A Unit of White Globe Publicationsdoi: 10.7815/ ijorcs.34.2013.068
A REVIEW AND ANAYSIS ON MOBILE APPLICATIONDEVELOPMENT PROCESSES USING AGILEMETHODLOGIES
 
Harleen
 
.
Flora
1
,
Dr. Swati V. Chande
2
 
1
Ph.D Scholar, Department of Computer Science, The IIS University, Jaipur, INDIA Email: harleenflora@gmail.com
2
Professor, Department of Computer Sciences, International School of Informatics and Management, Jaipur, INDIA Email: swatichande@rediffmail.com
 Abstract:
Over a last decade, mobiletelecommunication industry has observed a rapid growth, proved to be highly competitive, uncertain and dynamic environment. Besides its advancement, it hasalso raised number of questions and gained concernboth in industry and research. The development  process of mobile application differs from traditionalsoftwares as the users expect same features similar totheir desktop computer applications with additionalmobile specific functionalities. Advanced mobileapplications require assimilation with existingenterprise computing systems such as databases,legacy applications and Web services. In addition, thelifecycle of a mobile application moves much faster than that of a traditional Web application and therefore the lifecycle management associated thereinmust be adjusted accordingly. The Security and application testing are more stimulating and interesting in mobile application than in Webapplications since the technology in mobile devices progresses rapidly and developers must stay in touchwith the latest developments, news and trends in their area of work. With the rising competence of softwaremarket, researchers are seeking more flexible methodsthat can adjust to dynamic situations where softwaresystem requirements are changing over time, producing valuable software in short duration and within low budget. The intrinsic uncertainty and complexity in any software project therefore requiresan iterative developmental plan to cope withuncertainty and a large number of unknown variables. Agile Methodologies were thus introduced to meet thenew requirements of the software development companies. The agile methodologies aim at facilitatingsoftware development processes where changes areacceptable at any stage and provide a structure for highly collaborative software development. Therefore,the present paper aims in reviewing and analysingdifferent prevalent methodologies utilizing agiletechniques that are currently in use for thedevelopment of mobile applications. This paper  provides a detailed review and analysis on the use of agile methodologies in the proposed processesassociated with mobile application skills and highlights its benefit and constraints. In addition,based on this analysis, future research needs areidentified and discussed.
 Keywords:
Agile Methodologies, Mobile Software Development.
I.
 
INTRODUCTION
 
Software development methodologies have evolved since the 1970s. Agile methodologies came intoexistence to accommodate changing businessrequirements and for better management of thesoftware development lifecycle. It provides practicesthat facilitate communication between the developer and the customer, and undergo develop-deliver-feedback cycles, to have more specific view of therequirements, and be ready for any change at any time.Agile development methodology helps companies build the right product and empowers teams tocontinuously redesign their release to optimize itsvalue throughout development, allowing them to be ascompetitive as possible in the marketplace. Therefore,the main aim of the methodology is to deliver what isneeded at appropriate time during the developmentcycle. Agile methodologies are among the bestsoftware development approaches to apply at times,when customer’s requirements are not exact, or whenthe deadlines and budgets are tight. However, besidesthe benefits associated in employing agile technologiesin mobile software development there are issues thatraise concern in reporting gains in quality, productivityand business satisfaction by different groups. It has been reported that agile methods had been successfulin delivering in majority of cases whereas there areconflicting reports that claim that the methodology isstill too young to require extensive academic proof of their success. This paper is an attempt to review the published literature on application of the agileapproaches for the development of mobile software asthe researchers believe that agile innovations offer asolution to mobile specific applications that requireshigh quality development processes.
 
10 Harleen K. Flora, Dr. Swati V. Chande
 
AGILE
 
SOFTWARE
 
DEVELOPMENTThe Agile Manifesto, also called the Manifesto for Agile Software Development, is a formal affirmationof four key values and 12 principles to guide areiteration to software development. The Manifestowas published by a team of software developers thatdiscussed various means for lightweight developmentmethods as compared to Extreme Programming,SCRUM, DSDM, Adaptive software development,Crystal, Feature-Driven Development, and PragmaticProgramming [1]. In easier terms, The Agile manifestodistinct a development process that provided a guidingforce for agile practitioners. Agile methodologyfocuses more on the human aspects of softwareengineering than the perspective processes, therebyemploying human interaction over tools and processes.The Agile Manifesto established a common set of values and principles for all of the individual agilemethodologies. It details four core values for enablinghigh-performance, efficiency and outputs:1.
 
Individuals and their interactions
2.
 
Delivering working software
3.
 
Customer collaboration
4.
 
Responding to change.
These core values are further supported by 12 principles which underlie the Agile Manifesto thatincludes1.
 
Customer Satisfaction through early and frequent delivery
2.
 
Scope for changes even at a later stage in the project
3.
 
Short delivery cycle (e.g., every couple of weeks)
4.
 
Collaboration between businessmen and developers
5.
 
Motivation among individuals
6.
 
Face to face communication
7.
 
Working software-Primary measure of  progress
8.
 
Promoting sustainable development pace
9.
 
Continuous focus on technical excellence and good design
10.
 
Simplicity
11.
 
Self-Organization to obtain best results
12.
 
Self-improvement.
III.
 
MOBILE
 
APPLICATION
 
DEVELOPMENT
 
Mobile Application Development is the process bywhich applications are developed for small low-power handheld devices which are either pre-installed on phones during manufacture, or downloaded bycustomers from app stores and other mobile softwaredistribution platforms. The mobile application marketis witnessing a rapid growth with the increasing popularity and demand from users for a wide variety of mobile applications. There has been significantincrease in number of projects for mobile applicationdevelopment services as mobile platforms continue toadvance in performance and people skilled indeveloping applications for mobile phones and tabletsare highly in demand. It has been speculated thatdeveloping mobile applications is similar to softwareengineering for other embedded applications in manyaspects [2]. The issues that commonly encountered include integration with device hardware, as well astraditional issues of security, performance, reliability,and storage limitations. However, mobile applications present some additional requirements that are lesscommonly found with traditional softwareapplications, including: interface with other applications, handling device movement, mobileapplication types, cross platform compatibility,varying hardware complexities, security risks, privacy,user interfaces, testing complexity, power consumption, 24/7 “always on”, personal mobilecomputer, development process, application size, and mobile phone screen size.The rapid growth of mobile computing platform hassurpassed the software engineering processes tailored to mobile application development. The mobilesoftware development teams face the challenge of thedynamic environment of different development and technical requirements, with frequent modifications incustomer needs and expectations. The changing need and expectations make the systems more complex.During this continuous changing environment, theagile processes are considered to be most suitable for fast-paced markets, where customer satisfaction isgoverned by early and frequent delivery, scope for changes even late in the project, shortened deliverycycle, collaboration between businesses and developers,, need for continuous technical excellence,good design, simplicity and where working software isthe primary measure of progress.IV.
 
IS
 
AGILE
 
 – 
 
A
 
 NATURAL
 
FIT
 
FOR 
 
MOBILE
 
APPLICATION
 
DEVELOPMENT?The mobile telecommunications industry comprisesa highly competitive, dynamic and uncertainenvironment. The agile approach is seen as a natural fitfor mobile application development. and studiescarried out for the application of the agile developmentapproach to mobile application development indicatesthe need for software development processes tailored to suite the mobile application requirements [3]. It has been recommended that agile practices are the bestchoice which assures different phases of softwaredevelopment life cycle and to solve the mobileapplication development issues more efficiently [4]. Itis believed that agile innovations may offer a variety of 
 
 A Review and Analysis on Mobile Application Development Processes using Agile Methodologies 11
www.ijorcs.org solutions for mobile application and assist servicedevelopers in need of high quality development processes [2].Abrahamsson et al. [5] have demonstrated the traitswhich reasons why agile technologies fits best inmobile software development. The various issuesincludes, high environment volatility, smalldevelopment teams, identifiable customer, object-oriented development environment, non-safety criticalsoftware, application level software, small systems and short development cycles.Kannan [6] has also highlighted the suitability of agile software development in mobile applicationdevelopment because of small teams, short deadlines,importance of usability, fast delivery and lesscomplexity. The authors have suggested sevenmethods in which Agile development practicesenhance the development of mobile apps that includesexperimentation and adaption nature of mobile apps;reliability that leads to continued use of apps;extension of Agile sprints into mobile app model,responsiveness to technology changes; rapidlyaccommodating customer feedback; a more thoughtfuluser experience; and phased roll out of feature sets.Holler [3] suggested that agile softwaredevelopment offers tremendous opportunities and value, for mobile development teams working intointroducing a lightweight development process or scale back bureaucratic processes. The author hasemphasized about the progress in mobile computer technology and the rapid escalation of wirelessnetworks in quality and quantity that has brought innew applications and concerns in this dynamicenvironment. He has also underlined the promptnesswith which the industry needs to adapt and changeitself from conventional systems developmenttechniques fulfilling the special needs of this field.In addition, agile methodologies have also beencriticized in its ineffectiveness when used in largeorganizations and certain types of projects where it has been enlisted as an area that needs further research. Ithas been suggested that agile methods seem best for developmental and non-sequential projects and manyorganizations believe that the methodology is tooextreme. Barlow et al. [7] suggested that theseorganizations should prefer adopting a hybrid approach that mixes elements of agile and plan-drivenapproaches to fulfill their needs. Moreover, theysuggested that agile methods seem more suitable for developmental and non-sequential projects and manyorganizations believed that agile methodologies weretoo extreme. Boehm and Turner [8] and Beck [9]suggested that Agile development was found to be lessreliable and suitable for certain types of environmentand teams that include small number of experts.The technology has also been assessed bynumerous observers as being a “management fad” and claims of a measurable business improvement viameasurement of metrics defined by itself (e.g.velocity) [10, 11, 12]. The technology has itslimitations in distributed development efforts, using anAgile Software Process with Offshore Development,and mission-critical systems where failure is not anoption at any cost (e.g. software for air traffic control)(Fowler, 2010) [13].The technology has also been criticized for variousother reasons that includes lack of structure and necessary documentation, works with senior-leveldevelopers, incorporates insufficient software design,requires too much cultural change to adopt, can lead tomore difficult contractual negotiations, feature driven,non-functional quality attributes are hard to be placed as user stories. [14].In the scope of mobile software development,Corral et al. presented a survey that shows a lack of evidence that shows a clear link between the proposed Agile methodologies and their utilization in a real-world setting [15], instantiating a trend mentioned in a previous analysis by Janes et al. [16], that reflects anidentified decline on considering Agile practices as asilver bullet.
 
V.
 
REVIEW
 
OF
 
MOBILE
 
APPLICATION
 
DEVELOPMENT
 
PROCESSES
 
-
 
USING
 
AN
 
AGILE
 
APPROACHFollowing Agile methodologies have been proposed that uses combination of agile and non-agiletechniques for the development of mobile applications by various scientists in last decade.
Table 1: Mobile Application Development Processes using Agile Methodologies
 
Mobile Process Mobile Development Process Description Year Techniques
Mobile DAn Agile Approach for Mobile ApplicationDevelopment2004 XP, Crystal, RUPRaPiD 7 Rapid Production of Documentation - 7 steps 2005 AMHybrid MethodologyDesignDesigning an Agile Methodology for MobileSoftware Development - A Hybrid Method Engineering Approach2007 ASD, NPD

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