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How to Master Self effectiveness.pdf

How to Master Self effectiveness.pdf

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Published by David Nejadi

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Published by: David Nejadi on Jul 06, 2013
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A Key to Improving the Motivation of Integrative Learners
Self-efficacy . . . influence[s] task choice, effort, persis-tence, and achievement. Compared with students whodoubt their learning capacities, those who have a senseof efficacy for [particular tasks] participate more readily,work harder, persist longer when they encounter diffi-culties, and achieve at a higher level. . . . Students do notengage in activities they believe will lead to negative out-comes. (Schunk and Zimmerman 1997, 36)any struggling learners resist academics, thinkingthat they lack the ability to succeed, even if theyexpend great effort. In other words, these strugglinglearners have low rather than high self-efficacy for aca-demics. It is widely believed that without sufficientlyhigh self-efficacy, or the belief that they can succeed onspecific academic tasks like homework, many strug-gling learners will not make the effort needed to master academics. They will give up or avoid tasks similar tothose previously failed (Baker and Wigfield 1999; Ban-dura 1993; Casteel, Isom, and Jordan 2000; Chapmanand Tunmer 2003; Henk and Melnick 1995; Jinks andMorgan 1999; Lipson and Wixson 1997; Lynch 2002;Pajares 1996; Pintrich and Schunk 2002; Schunk andZimmerman 1997; Walker 2003).
A key to reversing this perspective—getting strugglinglearners with low self-efficacy to invest sufficient effort,to persist on tasks, to work to overcome difficulties, totake on increasingly challenging tasks, and to developinterest in academics—is for teachers to systematicallystress the development of high self-efficacy. Fortunate-ly, research suggests that teachers can often strengthenstruggling learners’ self-efficacy by linking new work torecent successes, teaching needed learning strategies,reinforcing effort and persistence, stressing peer model-ing, teaching struggling learners to make facilitativeattributions, and helping them identify or create per-sonally important goals (Ormrod 2000; Pajares 2003;Pajares and Schunk 2001; Pintrich and Schunk 2002;Schunk 1999; Zimmerman 2000a). For these strategiesto be effective, however, struggling learners with lowself-efficacy must succeed on the very type of tasks theyexpect to fail. This strongly suggests that classwork must be at their proper instructional level, and homework attheir proper independent level (Culyer 1996; Lipsonand Wixson 1997). Work should challenge rather thanfrustrate them (Strickland, Ganske, and Monroe 2002).It should strengthen expectations of success rather thanfailure. To achieve this, teachers need to (a) give strug-gling learners work at their proper instructional andindependent levels, and (b) adhere to instructional principles likely to improve self-efficacy.
Frustration, Instructional, andIndependent Levels
Perhaps the most important academic decision teach-ers make for struggling learners is determining the levels

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