I could never have finished this dissertation and my PhD without the kindness and supports from many people. The first one is Professor Leslie E. Sponsel, my chair and myadvisor, who always supported me in everything and provided me with his insightfulknowledge on ecological anthropology. Also other committee members—Alice Dewey,Jefferson M.Fox, Krisna Suryanata, and Alex Golub—provided me the valuable experiencesthrough their various classes I took. These classes gave me deep knowledge on politicalecology, environmental issues, community-based resource management, ethnographic methods,and rural people adaptations. The committee’s thoughtful comments on my draft were highlyhelpful for me to improve this dissertation. Also their moral support is very meaningful to meduring difficult time of writing.Without the East-West Center Graduate Degree Fellowship, I would never have had achance to continue my PhD program at UHM. Moreover, East-West Center gave me awonderful experience of living in a multi-cultural community having the great and live-longfriendship with friends from various countries.Even though in general living in Hawaii is such a memorable period, sometimes thesorrows happened to my life, I was able to pass through those difficult times with supports fromseveral of my very good friends in Hale Kuahine a nd Hale Manoa especially Pei-Luen Lu,Xiaofeng Kang, and Parichart Jungwiwattanaporn.I would never have been able to conduct the long-time field research safely insouthernmost Thailand, which is the region full of unrest and violence, without friendship, care,and trust from Kampong Ai Hetae residents. I specially wish to express my indebtedness to myhost family’s members, who all the time makes me feel like I am also a real member of thefamily. I would like to give special thanks to Wipa Sukpornsawan (Pi Kiang) and SamsudingDosormi and his family, and other friends in the southernmost region who brought me to thefield in the first place and had helped assist me all the time during my fieldwork.Without love and sacrifice of my parents, I could never have come to this stage. It is mygreat loss that my father passed away three years ago when I was in Hawai’i. I wish he could stay with me in the day that I can complete my degree. Finally, I would like to acknowledgeAnusorn Unno, my husband. Without his supports and encouragements I am certain that Icould not have been as I am today.