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Cơ bản về mã hoá (Cryptography)

Cơ bản về mã hoá (Cryptography)

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Published by echip

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Published by: echip on May 11, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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. Nh\u1eefng \u0111i\u1ec1u c\u0103n b\u1ea3n v\u1ec1 m\u00e3 ho\u00e1
Khi b\u1eaft \u0111\u1ea7u t\u00ecm hi\u1ec3u v\u1ec1 m\u00e3 ho\u00e1, ch\u00fang ta th\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u1eb7t ra nh\u1eefng c\u00e2u h\u1ecfi ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n nh\u01b0 l\u00e0: T\u1ea1i sao c\u1ea7n
ph\u1ea3i s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 ? T\u1ea1i sao l\u1ea1i c\u00f3 qu\u00e1 nhi\u1ec1u thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 ?v..v\u2026
Tai sao c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 ?

Thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n Cryptography \u0111\u1ec1 c\u1eadp t\u1edbi ngh\u00e0nh khoa h\u1ecdc nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u v\u1ec1 m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 v\u00e0 gi\u1ea3i m\u00e3 th\u00f4ng tin. C\u1ee5 th\u1ec3 h\u01a1n l\u00e0 nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u c\u00e1c c\u00e1ch th\u1ee9c chuy\u1ec3n \u0111\u1ed5i th\u00f4ng tin t\u1eeb d\u1ea1ng r\u00f5 (clear text) sang d\u1ea1ng m\u1edd (cipher text) v\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u1ea1i. \u0110\u00e2y l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 r\u1ea5t t\u1ed1t cho trong vi\u1ec7c ch\u1ed1ng l\u1ea1i nh\u1eefng truy c\u1eadp b\u1ea5t h\u1ee3p ph\u00e1p t\u1edbi d\u1eef li\u1ec7u \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c truy\u1ec1n \u0111i tr\u00ean m\u1ea1ng, \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 s\u1ebd khi\u1ebfn cho n\u1ed9i dung th\u00f4ng tin \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c truy\u1ec1n \u0111i d\u01b0\u1edbi d\u1ea1ng m\u1edd v\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ecdc \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi b\u1ea5t k\u1ef3 ai c\u1ed1 t\u00ecnh mu\u1ed1n l\u1ea5y th\u00f4ng tin \u0111\u00f3.

Nhu c\u1ea7u s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 ?

Kh\u00f4ng phai ai hay b\u1ea5t k\u1ef3 \u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng n\u00e0o c\u0169ng ph\u1ea3i s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng m\u00e3 ho\u00e1. Nhu c\u1ea7u v\u1ec1 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 xu\u1ea5t hi\u1ec7n khi c\u00e1c b\u00ean tham gia trao \u0111\u1ed5i th\u00f4ng tin mu\u1ed1n b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 c\u00e1c t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u quan tr\u1ecdng hay g\u1eedi ch\u00fang \u0111i m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch an to\u00e0n. C\u00e1c t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u quan tr\u1ecdng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0: t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u qu\u00e2n s\u1ef1, t\u00e0i ch\u00ednh, kinh doanh ho\u1eb7c \u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t th\u00f4ng tin n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3 mang t\u00ednh ri\u00eang t\u01b0.

Nh\u01b0 ch\u00fang ta \u0111\u00e3 bi\u1ebft, Internet h\u00ecnh th\u00e0nh v\u00e0 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n t\u1eeb y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a ch\u00ednh ph\u1ee7 M\u1ef9 nh\u1eb1m ph\u1ee5c v\u1ee5 cho m\u1ee5c \u0111\u00edch qu\u00e2n s\u1ef1. Khi ch\u00fang ta tham gia trao \u0111\u1ed5i th\u00f4ng tin, th\u00ec Internet l\u00e0 m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng kh\u00f4ng an to\u00e0n, \u0111\u1ea7y r\u1ee7i ro v\u00e0 nguy hi\u1ec3m, kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 g\u00ec \u0111\u1ea3m b\u1ea3o r\u1eb1ng th\u00f4ng tin m\u00e0 ch\u00fang ta truy\u1ec1n \u0111i kh\u00f4ng b\u1ecb \u0111\u1ecdc tr\u1ed9m tr\u00ean \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng truy\u1ec1n. Do \u0111\u00f3, m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng nh\u01b0 m\u1ed9t bi\u1ec7n ph\u00e1p nh\u1eb1m gi\u00fap ch\u00fang ta t\u1ef1 b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 ch\u00ednh m\u00ecnh c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 nh\u1eefng th\u00f4ng tin m\u00e0 ch\u00fang ta g\u1eedi \u0111i. B\u00ean c\u1ea1nh \u0111\u00f3, m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 c\u00f2n c\u00f3 nh\u1eefng \u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng kh\u00e1c nh\u01b0 l\u00e0 b\u1ea3o \u0111\u1ea3m t\u00ednh to\u00e0n v\u1eb9n c\u1ee7a d\u1eef li\u1ec7u.

T\u1ea1i sao l\u1ea1i c\u00f3 qu\u00e1 nhi\u1ec1u thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 ?

Theo m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u th\u00ec tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u00e2y t\u00ednh an to\u00e0n, b\u00ed m\u1eadt c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c v\u00e0o ph\u01b0\u01a1ng th\u1ee9c l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c c\u1ee7a thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n \u0111\u00f3. N\u1ebfu nh\u01b0 t\u00ednh an to\u00e0n c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n ch\u1ec9 d\u1ef1a v\u00e0o s\u1ef1 b\u00ed m\u1eadt c\u1ee7a thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n \u0111\u00f3 th\u00ec thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n \u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf (Restricted Algrorithm). Restricted Algrorithm c\u00f3 t\u1ea7m quan tr\u1ecdng trong l\u1ecbch s\u1eed nh\u01b0ng kh\u00f4ng c\u00f2n ph\u00f9 h\u1ee3p trong th\u1eddi \u0111\u1ea1i ng\u00e0y nay. Gi\u1edd \u0111\u00e2y, n\u00f3 kh\u00f4ng c\u00f2n \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u1ecdi ng\u01b0\u1eddi s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng do m\u1eb7t h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf c\u1ee7a n\u00f3: m\u1ed7i khi m\u1ed9t user r\u1eddi kh\u1ecfi m\u1ed9t nh\u00f3m th\u00ec to\u00e0n b\u1ed9 nh\u00f3m \u0111\u00f3 ph\u1ea3i chuy\u1ec3n sang s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n kh\u00e1c ho\u1eb7c n\u1ebfu ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u00f3 ng\u01b0\u1eddi trong nh\u00f3m \u0111\u00f3 ti\u1ebft l\u1ed9 th\u00f4ng tin v\u1ec1 thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n hay c\u00f3 k\u1ebb ph\u00e1t hi\u1ec7n ra t\u00ednh b\u00ed m\u1eadt c\u1ee7a thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n th\u00ec coi nh\u01b0 thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n \u0111\u00f3 \u0111\u00e3 b\u1ecb ph\u00e1 v\u1ee1, t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 nh\u1eefng user c\u00f2n l\u1ea1i trong nh\u00f3m bu\u1ed9c ph\u1ea3i thay \u0111\u1ed5i l\u1ea1i thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n d\u1eabn \u0111\u1ebfn m\u1ea5t th\u1eddi gian v\u00e0 c\u00f4ng s\u1ee9c.

H\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 hi\u1ec7n nay \u0111\u00e3 gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 tr\u00ean th\u00f4ng qua kho\u00e1 (Key) l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t y\u1ebfu t\u1ed1 c\u00f3 li\u00ean quan nh\u01b0ng t\u00e1ch r\u1eddi ra kh\u1ecfi thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n m\u00e3 ho\u00e1. Do c\u00e1c thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n h\u1ea7u nh\u01b0 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u00f4ng khai cho n\u00ean t\u00ednh an to\u00e0n c\u1ee7a m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 gi\u1edd \u0111\u00e2y ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c v\u00e0o kho\u00e1. Kho\u00e1 n\u00e0y c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0 b\u1ea5t k\u00ec m\u1ed9t gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb ch\u1eef ho\u1eb7c s\u1ed1 n\u00e0o. Ph\u1ea1m vi kh\u00f4ng gian c\u00e1c gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 c\u00f3 c\u1ee7a kho\u00e1 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0Ke yspa ce . Hai qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 v\u00e0 gi\u1ea3i m\u00e3 \u0111\u1ec1u d\u00f9ng \u0111\u1ebfn kho\u00e1. Hi\u1ec7n nay, ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng v\u00e0 \u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh c\u1ee7a kho\u00e1 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng.

N\u00f3i \u0111\u1ebfn m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 t\u1ee9c l\u00e0 n\u00f3i \u0111\u1ebfn vi\u1ec7c che d\u1ea5u th\u00f4ng tin b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n. Che d\u1ea5u \u1edf \u0111\u00e2y kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0 l\u00e0m cho th\u00f4ng tin bi\u1ebfn m\u1ea5t m\u00e0 l\u00e0 c\u00e1ch th\u1ee9c chuy\u1ec3n t\u1eeb d\u1ea1ng t\u1ecf sang d\u1ea1ng m\u1edd. M\u1ed9t thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c c\u00e2u l\u1ec7nh m\u00e0 theo \u0111\u00f3 ch\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh s\u1ebd bi\u1ebft ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0m th\u1ebf n\u00e0o \u0111\u1ec3 x\u00e1o tr\u1ed9n hay ph\u1ee5c h\u1ed3i l\u1ea1i d\u1eef li\u1ec7u. Ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n m\u1ed9t thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n r\u1ea5t \u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 th\u00f4ng \u0111i\u1ec7p c\u1ea7n g\u1eedi \u0111i nh\u01b0 sau:

B\u01b0\u1edbc 1: Thay th\u1ebf to\u00e0n b\u1ed9 ch\u1eef c\u00e1i \u201ce\u201d th\u00e0nh s\u1ed1 \u201c3\u201d B\u01b0\u1edbc 2: Thay th\u1ebf to\u00e0n b\u1ed9 ch\u1eef c\u00e1i \u201ca\u201d th\u00e0nh s\u1ed1 \u201c4\u201d B\u01b0\u1edbc 3: \u0110\u1ea3o ng\u01b0\u1ee3c th\u00f4ng \u0111i\u1ec7p

Tr\u00ean \u0111\u00e2y l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t v\u00ed d\u1ee5 r\u1ea5t \u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n m\u00f4 ph\u1ecfng c\u00e1ch l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n m\u00e3 ho\u00e1. Sau \u0111\u00e2y l\u00e0 c\u00e1c
thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n nh\u1ea5t gi\u00fap ch\u00fang ta n\u1eafm \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m:

-Sender/Receiver: Ng\u01b0\u1eddi g\u1eedi/Ng\u01b0\u1eddi nh\u1eadn d\u1eef li\u1ec7u
- Plaintext (Cleartext): Th\u00f4ng tin tr\u01b0\u1edbc khi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u00e3 ho\u00e1. \u0110\u00e2y l\u00e0 d\u1eef li\u1ec7u ban \u0111\u1ea7u \u1edf d\u1ea1ng r\u00f5
- Ciphertext: Th\u00f4ng tin, d\u1eef li\u1ec7u \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 \u1edf d\u1ea1ng m\u1edd
- Key: Th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n quan tr\u1ecdng trong vi\u1ec7c m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 v\u00e0 gi\u1ea3i m\u00e3
- CryptoGraphic Algorithm: L\u00e0 c\u00e1c thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng trong vi\u1ec7c m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 ho\u1eb7c gi\u1ea3i m\u00e3 th\u00f4ng tin
-CryptoSystem: H\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 bao g\u1ed3m thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n m\u00e3 ho\u00e1, kho\u00e1, Plaintext, Ciphertext

K\u00ed hi\u1ec7u chung: P l\u00e0 th\u00f4ng tin ban \u0111\u1ea7u, tr\u01b0\u1edbc khi m\u00e3 ho\u00e1. E() l\u00e0 thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n m\u00e3 ho\u00e1. D() l\u00e0 thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n gi\u1ea3i m\u00e3.
C l\u00e0 th\u00f4ng tin m\u00e3 ho\u00e1. K l\u00e0 kho\u00e1. Ch\u00fang ta bi\u1ec3u di\u1ec5n qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 v\u00e0 gi\u1ea3i m\u00e3 nh\u01b0 sau:
- Qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u00f4 t\u1ea3 b\u1eb1ng c\u00f4ng th\u1ee9c: EK(P)=C
- Qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh gi\u1ea3i m\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u00f4 t\u1ea3 b\u1eb1ng c\u00f4ng th\u1ee9c: DK(C)=P
Minh ho\u1ea1 qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh m\u00e3 h\u00f3a v\u00e0 gi\u1ea3i m\u00e3
B\u00ean c\u1ea1nh vi\u1ec7c l\u00e0m th\u1ebf n\u00e0o \u0111\u1ec3 che d\u1ea5u n\u1ed9i dung th\u00f4ng tin th\u00ec m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 ph\u1ea3i \u0111\u1ea3m b\u1ea3o c\u00e1c m\u1ee5c ti\u00eau sau:

a.Confidentiality (T\u00ednh b\u00ed m\u1eadt): \u0110\u1ea3m b\u1ea3o d\u1eef li\u1ec7u \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c truy\u1ec1n \u0111i m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch an to\u00e0n v\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 b\u1ecb l\u1ed9 th\u00f4ng tin n\u1ebfu nh\u01b0 c\u00f3 ai \u0111\u00f3 c\u1ed1 t\u00ecnh mu\u1ed1n c\u00f3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u1ed9i dung c\u1ee7a d\u1eef li\u1ec7u g\u1ed1c ban \u0111\u1ea7u. Ch\u1ec9 nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e9p m\u1edbi c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng \u0111\u1ecdc \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u1ed9i dung th\u00f4ng tin ban \u0111\u1ea7u.

b. Authentication (T\u00ednh x\u00e1c th\u1ef1c): Gi\u00fap cho ng\u01b0\u1eddi nh\u1eadn d\u1eef li\u1ec7u x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1eafc ch\u1eafn d\u1eef li\u1ec7u m\u00e0

h\u1ecd nh\u1eadn l\u00e0 d\u1eef li\u1ec7u g\u1ed1c ban \u0111\u1ea7u. K\u1ebb gi\u1ea3 m\u1ea1o kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng \u0111\u1ec3 gi\u1ea3 d\u1ea1ng m\u1ed9t ng\u01b0\u1eddi kh\u00e1c hay n\u00f3i c\u00e1ch kh\u00e1c kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 m\u1ea1o danh \u0111\u1ec3 g\u1eedi d\u1eef li\u1ec7u. Ng\u01b0\u1eddi nh\u1eadn c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng ki\u1ec3m tra ngu\u1ed3n g\u1ed1c th\u00f4ng tin m\u00e0 h\u1ecd nh\u1eadn \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c.

c. Integrity (T\u00ednh to\u00e0n v\u1eb9n): Gi\u00fap cho ng\u01b0\u1eddi nh\u1eadn d\u1eef li\u1ec7u ki\u1ec3m tra \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c r\u1eb1ng d\u1eef li\u1ec7u kh\u00f4ng b\u1ecb thay \u0111\u1ed5i
trong qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh truy\u1ec1n \u0111i. K\u1ebb gi\u1ea3 m\u1ea1o kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng thay th\u1ebf d\u1eef li\u1ec7u ban \u0111\u1ea7u b\u0103ng d\u1eef li\u1ec7u gi\u1ea3
d. Non-repudation (T\u00ednh kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 ch\u1ed1i b\u1ecf): Ng\u01b0\u1eddi g\u1eedi hay ng\u01b0\u1eddi nh\u1eadn kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 ch\u1ed1i b\u1ecf sau khi \u0111\u00e3
g\u1eedi ho\u1eb7c nh\u1eadn th\u00f4ng tin.
2. \u0110\u1ed9 an to\u00e0n c\u1ee7a thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n

Nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc \u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean trong m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 l\u00e0 \u201cThu\u1eadt to\u00e1n n\u00e0o c\u0169ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 b\u1ecb ph\u00e1 v\u1ee1\u201d. C\u00e1c thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n kh\u00e1c nhau cung c\u1ea5p m\u1ee9c \u0111\u1ed9 an to\u00e0n kh\u00e1c nhau, ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c v\u00e0o \u0111\u1ed9 ph\u1ee9c t\u1ea1p \u0111\u1ec3 ph\u00e1 v\u1ee1 ch\u00fang. T\u1ea1i m\u1ed9t th\u1eddi \u0111i\u1ec3m, \u0111\u1ed9 an to\u00e0n c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c:

- N\u1ebfu chi ph\u00ed hay ph\u00ed t\u1ed5n c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft \u0111\u1ec3 ph\u00e1 v\u1ee1 m\u1ed9t thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n l\u1edbn h\u01a1n gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb c\u1ee7a th\u00f4ng tin \u0111\u00e3 m\u00e3 h\u00f3a thu\u1eadt
to\u00e1n th\u00ec thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n \u0111\u00f3 t\u1ea1m th\u1eddi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c coi l\u00e0 an to\u00e0n.
- N\u1ebfu th\u1eddi gian c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft d\u00f9ng \u0111\u1ec3 ph\u00e1 v\u1ee1 m\u1ed9t thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n l\u00e0 qu\u00e1 l\u00e2u th\u00ec thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n \u0111\u00f3 t\u1ea1m th\u1eddi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c coi l\u00e0
an to\u00e0n.
- N\u1ebfu l\u01b0\u1ee3ng d\u1eef li\u1ec7u c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft \u0111\u1ec3 ph\u00e1 v\u1ee1 m\u1ed9t thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n qu\u00e1 l\u01a1n so v\u1edbi l\u01b0\u1ee3ng d\u1eef li\u1ec7u \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 th\u00ec
thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n \u0111\u00f3 t\u1ea1m th\u1eddi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c coi l\u00e0 an to\u00e0n

T\u1eeb t\u1ea1m th\u1eddi \u1edf \u0111\u00e2y c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed9 an to\u00e0n c\u1ee7a thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n \u0111\u00f3 ch\u1ec9 \u0111\u00fang trong m\u1ed9t th\u1eddi \u0111i\u1ec3m nh\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ecbnh n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3, lu\u00f4n lu\u00f4n c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng cho ph\u00e9p nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi ph\u00e1 m\u00e3 t\u00ecm ra c\u00e1ch \u0111\u1ec3 ph\u00e1 v\u1ee1 thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n. \u0110i\u1ec1u n\u00e0y ch\u1ec9 ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c v\u00e0o th\u1eddi gian, c\u00f4ng s\u1ee9c, l\u00f2ng \u0111am m\u00ea c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 t\u00ednh ki\u00ean tr\u00ec b\u00ean b\u1ec9. C\u00e0ng ng\u00e0y t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 x\u1eed l\u00fd c\u1ee7a CPU c\u00e0ng cao, t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 t\u00ednh to\u00e1n c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y t\u00ednh ng\u00e0y c\u00e0ng nhanh, cho n\u00ean kh\u00f4ng ai d\u00e1m kh\u1eb3ng \u0111\u1ecbnh ch\u1eafc ch\u1eafn m\u1ed9t \u0111i\u1ec1u r\u1eb1ng thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n m\u00e0 m\u00ecnh x\u00e2y d\u1ef1ng s\u1ebd an to\u00e0n m\u00e3i m\u00e3i. Trong l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c m\u1ea1ng m\u00e1y t\u00ednh v\u00e0 truy\u1ec1n th\u00f4ng lu\u00f4n lu\u00f4n t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i hai phe \u0111\u1ed1i l\u1eadp v\u1edbi nhau nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi chuy\u00ean \u0111i t\u1ea5n c\u00f4ng, khai th\u00e1c l\u1ed7 h\u1ed5ng c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng v\u00e0 nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi chuy\u00ean ph\u00f2ng th\u1ee7, x\u00e2y d\u1ef1ng c\u00e1c qui tr\u00ecnh b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng. Cu\u1ed9c chi\u1ebfn gi\u1eefa hai b\u00ean ch\u1eb3ng kh\u00e1c g\u00ec m\u1ed9t cu\u1ed9c ch\u01a1i tr\u00ean b\u00e0n c\u1edd, t\u1eebng b\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111i, n\u01b0\u1edbc b\u01b0\u1edbc s\u1ebd quy\u1ebft \u0111\u1ecbnh s\u1ed1 ph\u1eadn c\u1ee7a m\u1ed1i b\u00ean. Trong cu\u1ed9c

chi\u1ebfn n\u00e0y, ai gi\u1ecfi h\u01a1n s\u1ebd d\u00e0nh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u1ea7n th\u1eafng. Trong th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 c\u0169ng v\u1eady, t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c v\u00e0o tr\u00ecnh
\u0111\u1ed9 v\u00e0 th\u1eddi gian\u2026s\u1ebd kh\u00f4ng ai c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 n\u00f3i tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111i\u1ec1u g\u00ec. \u0110\u00f3 l\u00e0 \u0111i\u1ec3m th\u00fa v\u1ecb c\u1ee7a tr\u00f2 ch\u01a1i.
3. Ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i c\u00e1c thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n m\u00e3 ho\u00e1

C\u00f3 r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u c\u00e1c thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 kh\u00e1c nhau. T\u1eeb nh\u1eefng thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u00f4ng khai \u0111\u1ec3 m\u1ecdi ng\u01b0\u1eddi c\u00f9ng s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng v\u00e0 \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng nh\u01b0 l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t chu\u1ea9n chung cho vi\u1ec7c m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 d\u1eef li\u1ec7u; \u0111\u1ebfn nh\u1eefng thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u00f4ng b\u1ed1. C\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i c\u00e1c thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 nh\u01b0 sau:

Ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i theo c\u00e1c ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p:

-M\u00e3 ho\u00e1 c\u1ed5 \u0111i\u1ec3n (Classical cryptography)
- M\u00e3 ho\u00e1 \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1ee9ng (Symetric cryptography)
- M\u00e3 ho\u00e1 b\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1ee9ng(Asymetric cryptography)
-H\u00e0m b\u0103m (Hash function)

Ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i theo s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng kho\u00e1:
-M\u00e3 ho\u00e1 kho\u00e1 b\u00ed m\u1eadt (Private-key Cryptography)
-M\u00e3 ho\u00e1 kho\u00e1 c\u00f4ng khai (Public-key Cryptography)
3.1 M\u00e3 ho\u00e1 c\u1ed5 \u0111i\u1ec3n:

Xu\u1ea5t hi\u1ec7n trong l\u1ecbch s\u1eed, c\u00e1c ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p n\u00e0y kh\u00f4ng d\u00f9ng kho\u00e1. Thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n \u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n v\u00e0 d\u1ec5 hi\u1ec3u. Nh\u1eefng t\u1eeb ch\u00ednh c\u00e1c ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 n\u00e0y \u0111\u00e3 gi\u00fap ch\u00fang ta ti\u1ebfp c\u1eadn v\u1edbi c\u00e1c thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1ee9ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng ng\u00e0y nay. Trong m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 c\u1ed5 \u0111i\u1ec3n c\u00f3 02 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p n\u1ed5i b\u1eadt \u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0:

- M\u00e3 ho\u00e1 thay th\u1ebf (Substitution Cipher):

L\u00e0 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p m\u00e0 t\u1eebng k\u00ed t\u1ef1 (hay t\u1eebng nh\u00f3m k\u00ed t\u1ef1) trong b\u1ea3n r\u00f5 (Plaintext) \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c thay th\u1ebf b\u1eb1ng m\u1ed9t k\u00ed t\u1ef1 (hay m\u1ed9t nh\u00f3m k\u00ed t\u1ef1) kh\u00e1c \u0111\u1ec3 t\u1ea1o ra b\u1ea3n m\u1edd (Ciphertext). B\u00ean nh\u1eadn ch\u1ec9 c\u1ea7n \u0111\u1ea3o ng\u01b0\u1ee3c tr\u00ecnh t\u1ef1 thay th\u1ebf tr\u00ean Ciphertext \u0111\u1ec3 c\u00f3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c Plaintext ban \u0111\u1ea7u.

-M\u00e3 ho\u00e1 ho\u00e1n v\u1ecb (Transposition Cipher):

B\u00ean c\u1ea1nh ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 thay th\u1ebf th\u00ec trong m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 c\u1ed5 \u0111i\u1ec3n c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p kh\u00e1c n\u1eefa c\u0169ng n\u1ed5i ti\u1ebfng kh\u00f4ng k\u00e9m, \u0111\u00f3 ch\u00ednh l\u00e0 m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 ho\u00e1n v\u1ecb. N\u1ebfu nh\u01b0 trong ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 thay th\u1ebf, c\u00e1c k\u00ed t\u1ef1 trong Plaintext \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c thay th\u1ebf ho\u00e0n to\u00e0n b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1c k\u00ed t\u1ef1 trong Ciphertext, th\u00ec trong ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 ho\u00e1n v\u1ecb, c\u00e1c k\u00ed t\u1ef1 trong Plaintext v\u1eabn \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c gi\u1eef nguy\u00ean, ch\u00fang ch\u1ec9 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eafp x\u1ebfp l\u1ea1i v\u1ecb tr\u00ed \u0111\u1ec3 t\u1ea1o ra Ciphertext. T\u1ee9c l\u00e0 c\u00e1c k\u00ed t\u1ef1 trong Plaintext ho\u00e0n to\u00e0n kh\u00f4ng b\u1ecb thay \u0111\u1ed5i b\u1eb1ng k\u00ed t\u1ef1 kh\u00e1c.

3.2 M\u00e3 ho\u00e1 \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1ee9ng:
\u1ede ph\u1ea7n tr\u00ean, ch\u00fang ta \u0111\u00e3 t\u00ecm hi\u1ec3u v\u1ec1 m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 c\u1ed5 \u0111i\u1ec3n, trong \u0111\u00f3 c\u00f3 n\u00f3i r\u1eb1ng m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 c\u1ed5 \u0111i\u1ec3n kh\u00f4ng
d\u00f9ng kho\u00e1. Nh\u01b0ng tr\u00ean th\u1ef1c n\u1ebfu ch\u00fang ta ph\u00e2n t\u00edch m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch t\u1ed5ng qu\u00e1t, ch\u00fang ta s\u1ebd th\u1ea5y \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nh\u01b0 sau:

- M\u00e3 ho\u00e1 c\u1ed5 \u0111i\u1ec3n c\u00f3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng kho\u00e1. B\u1eb1ng ch\u1ee9ng l\u00e0 trong ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p Ceaser Cipher th\u00ec kho\u00e1 ch\u00ednh l\u00e0 ph\u00e9p d\u1ecbch k\u00fd t\u1ef1, m\u00e0 c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0 ph\u00e9p d\u1ecbch 3 k\u00fd t\u1ef1. Trong ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 ho\u00e1n v\u1ecb th\u00ec kh\u00f3a n\u1eb1m \u1edf s\u1ed1 h\u00e0ng hay s\u1ed1 c\u1ed9t m\u00e0 ch\u00fang ta qui \u0111\u1ecbnh. Kho\u00e1 n\u00e0y c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c thay \u0111\u1ed5i tu\u1ef3 theo m\u1ee5c \u0111\u00edch m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 c\u1ee7a ch\u00fang ta, nh\u01b0ng n\u00f3 ph\u1ea3i n\u1eb1m trong m\u1ed9t ph\u1ea1m vi cho ph\u00e9p n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3.

- \u0110\u1ec3 d\u00f9ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 c\u1ed5 \u0111i\u1ec3n th\u00ec b\u00ean m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 v\u00e0 b\u00ean gi\u1ea3i m\u00e3 ph\u1ea3i th\u1ed1ng nh\u1ea5t v\u1edbi nhau v\u1ec1 c\u01a1 ch\u1ebf
m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 gi\u1ea3i m\u00e3. N\u1ebfu nh\u01b0 kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 c\u00f4ng vi\u1ec7c n\u00e0y th\u00ec hai b\u00ean s\u1ebd kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c v\u1edbi nhau.
M\u00e3 ho\u00e1 \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1ee9ng c\u00f2n c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 t\u00ean g\u1ecdi kh\u00e1c nh\u01b0 Secret Key Cryptography (hay Private Key
Cryptography), s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng c\u00f9ng m\u1ed9t kho\u00e1 cho c\u1ea3 hai qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 v\u00e0 gi\u1ea3i m\u00e3.
Qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n nh\u01b0 sau:

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