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Table Of Contents

2. SOFT SOILS AND HIGHWAY EMBANKMENT
2.2. Soft Clay Soil Definition
Table 2.1. TxDOT Soil Density and Bedrock Hardness Classification
2.3. Embankment Settlement
Fig. 2.1. Typical Configuration of Soil Layers under an Embankment
Fig. 2.2. Field Condition Simulation in Laboratory Consolidation Test
Fig. 2.3. Typical e – log σv Relationship for Overconsolidated Clay
Table 2.2. Recommended uh/σ Values (Dobak 2003)
Fig. 2.6. Commercially Available CRS Test System (GEOTAC Company 2006)
Table 2.3. Conditions for 1-D Consolidation Tests (Dobak 2003)
Fig. 2.7. 2:1 Method for Vertical Stress Distribution (Holtz and Kovacs 1981)
Fig. 2.8. Vertical Stress Due to a Flexible Strip Load (Das 2006)
Fig. 2.9. Embankment Loading Using Osterberg’s Method (Das 2006)
2.4. Behavior of Marine and Deltaic Soft Clays
Fig. 2.10. Locations of Soft Clay Soils Used for the Analysis
(a) Marine clay (b) Deltaic clay
Fig. 2.15. Predicted and Measured Relationships for Marine and Deltaic Clays
3. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF HIGHWAY EMBANKMENTS
3.1. Highway Embankments
Fig. 3.2. Variation of TCP Blow Counts with Depth (Borehole 99-1a.)
Table 3.2. Laboratory Test and Field Tests Results (Borehole 99-1a)
Fig. 3.4. Variation of Undrained Shear Strength with Depth (Borehole 99-1a)
Fig. 3.6. Profile of the Soil Layers for Settlement Calculation (Project 1)
Table 3.4. Summary Table of the Stress Increase in the Soil Mass (Project 1)
Fig. 3.9. Variation of TCP Blow Counts with Depth (Project 2)
Table 3.5. Laboratory and Field Tests Results (Boring O-1) (Project 2)
Table 3.6. Laboratory and Field Tests Results (Boring O-4) (Project 2)
Table 3.7. Laboratory and Field Tests Results (Boring O-5) (Project 2)
Table 3.8. Laboratory and Field Tests Results (Boring O-6) (Project 2)
Table 3.10. Summary Table of the Stress Increase in the Soil Mass
Fig. 3.14. Effect of Layering on the Rate of Settlement (Project 2)
Fig. 3.16. Location of the Borings Used in the Field (Drawings 13 and 14)
Fig. 3.17. Variation of TCP Blow Counts with Depth (Project 3)
Table 3.12. Variation of Soil Types in Five Borings (Project 3)
Table 3.13. Variation of Moisture Content in the Six Borings (Project 3)
Fig. 3.19. Variation of Undrained Shear Strength with Depth (Project 3)
Fig. 3.21. Profile of the Soil Layers for Settlement Calculation (Project 3)
Table 3.16. Summary Stress Increase in the Soil Mass (Project 3)
Fig. 3.27. Cross Section of the Bridge and the Embankment at Nasa Road 1 Site
Fig. 3.28. Approximate Borehole Locations Drilled in April 2007 (Not to Scale)
Fig. 3.30. Comparison of Rate of Settlement (Project 4)
3.2. Summary and Discussion
4. LABORATORY TESTS AND ANALYSIS
Table 4.1. Summary of the Samples Collected
Fig. 4.2. Variation of Moisture Content with Depth in All the Boreholes (SH3)
Fig. 4.3. Variation of Liquid Limit with Depth (SH3)
Fig. 4.4. Variation of Plastic Limit with Depth in Boring B1 (SH3)
Fig. 4.6. Variation of Overconsolidation Ratio with Depth in Borehole B1 (SH3)
Fig. 4.7. Variation of Compression Index with Depth in Boring B1 (SH3)
Table 4.2. Summary of Soil Type Parameters (SH3)
Table 4.3. Summary of Strength Parameters (SH3)
Table 4.4. Summary of Consolidation Parameters (SH3)
Fig. 4.12. Variation of New and Old (a) Cc and (b) Cr2 with Depth
4.3. Soil Characterization
4.4. Preconsolidation Pressure (σp)
Fig. 4.17. Graphical Methods of Determining the Preconsolidation Pressure
4.5. Compression Index (Cc)
4.6. Recompression Index (Cr)
4.7. Coefficient of Consolidation (Cv)
4.8. Constant Rate of Strain (CRS) Test (ASTM D 4186-86)
Fig. 5.1. Location of the Instrumented Embankment Sites
5.2. Site History and Previous Site Investigation
Fig. 5.3. Cross Section of the NASA Road 1 Embankment (Project 4)
5.3. Instrumentation
Fig. 5.4. Schematic of the Extensometer
Fig. 5.5. (a) Inclinometer Probe (Geokon Inc 2007) and (b) Inclinometer Casing
Fig. 5.6. Demec on the Embankment Retaining Wall (Project 3)
5.4. NASA Road 1 Embankment Instrumentation
5.5. SH3 Embankment Instrumentation and Results
Fig. 5.7. Plan View of SH3 at Clear Creek with the New Boring Locations
Fig. 5.10. Inclinometer Reading at Boring B2 (SH3)
Fig. 5.11. Measured Relative Displacement with Time at Boring B1
Fig. 5.12. Measurement of Vertical Displacement with Time at Boring B3
Fig. 5.13. Pore Water Pressure Variation with Time at Boring B1 (Project 3)
Fig. 5.14. Pore Water Pressure Variation with Time at Boring B3
Fig. 5.16. Inclinometer Reading at Boring B4 (SH3)
Fig. 5.17. Measured Relative Displacement with Time at Boring B5
Fig. 5.18. Pore Pressure Variation with Time at Boring B5
Fig. 5.22. Variation of Consolidation Settlement (Project 3)
Fig. 5.24. Relative Displacements of the Wall Panels along the Embankment
Fig. 5.25. Change in the Crack Opening along the Wall
Fig. 5.26. View of L2 Rotation Monitoring Mark Line on the Retaining Wall
5.6. NASA Road 1 (Project 4)
Fig. 5.28. Piezometer Readings at (a) Borehole UH-2 and (b) Borehole UH-4
Fig. 5.29. University of Houston’s Settlement Measurement Set-Up Readings
5.7. Summary and Discussion
6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
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Fhwa Prediction of Embankment Settlement Over Soft Soils

Fhwa Prediction of Embankment Settlement Over Soft Soils

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Published by Jaykumar Shukla
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Published by: Jaykumar Shukla on Jul 07, 2013
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08/10/2013

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