prevented war between the United States and the Soviet Union, butalso precluded UN-sanctioned multilateral intervention in many conflicts. The rivalry between the superpowers had also made itdifficult for external actors to challenge severe violations of humanrights, even in weak states, because most had a superpower patron.Second, growing evidence showed that many sovereign stateshad no capacity to control or administer their territories. Statessuch as Somalia and Liberia became battlefields for multiple fac-tions, often with hazy leadership, organizational structures, andpolitical programs.The phenomenonof state collapse orfailure, which firstclaimed wide at-tention in Somalia but quickly be-came evident inmany countries in Africa and beyond,created a strongdemand for inter-national interven-tion. These failedstates raised new questions about when the UN, other interna-tional organizations, or individual countries might legitimately intervene in a country’s internal affairs. When no real
governmentwas in place, the idea that intervention constituted a violation of sovereignty unless requested by the government appeared outrightabsurd.Third, the breakup of Yugoslavia bred a number of conflictsthat straddled the line between civil war and interstate conflict. Thecomplex mix of newly recognized states and non-state political en-tities, such as Republika Srpska or Kosovo, made defining sover-eignty over and responsibility for a territory intensely problematic.Fourth, a growing body of legal and academic writing justi-fied international intervention in defense of human rights,
argu-ing that the fundamental human rights of subject populationswere more important than the sovereign rights of the state. Thispolicy camp supported intervention to protect citizens where a sovereign state was violating human rights. As a result of these developments, the 1990s witnessed anunprecedented number of UN interventions, most of them in in-
The phenomenon of state collapseor failure, which first claimedwide attention in Somalia butquickly became evident in manycountries in Africa and beyond,created a strong demand forinternational intervention.