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eng4820_week15

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Published by: eng4820 on May 11, 2009
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05/11/2014

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ENG4820
 
|
 
W
EEK
 
15
 
|
 
P
AGE
 
1
 
OF
 
10
 
ENG4820
 
|
 
History
 
of 
 
the
 
English
 
Language
 
|
 
Spring
 
2009
 
Week
 
15:
 
Present
Day
 
and
 
Future
 
English
 
FROM
 
LAST
 
WEEK…
 
Distinguishing
 
American
 
Dialects
 
Dialects
 
can
 
be
 
very
 
slippery
 
things.
 
Speakers
 
will
 
adjust
 
their
 
production
 
 –
 
whether
 
consciously
 
or
 
not
 
 –
 
based
 
on
 
many
 
different
 
factors,
 
many
 
of 
 
them
 
emotional:
 
 
How
 
do
 
they
 
feel
 
about
 
their
 
sociolinguistic
 
origins?
 
 
Are
 
they
 
paying
 
special
 
attention
 
to
 
the
 
features
 
of 
 
their
 
own
 
speech?
 
 
What
 
linguistically
 
defined
 
group
 
do
 
they
 
feel
 
they
 
belong
 
to,
 
want
 
to
 
belong
 
to,
 
or
 
want
 
to
 
not
 
belong
 
to?
 
 
What
 
linguistically
 
defined
 
group
 
do
 
they
 
associate
 
their
 
addressee(s)
 
to?
 
 
What’s
 
the
 
subject?
 
Family
 
history
 
or
 
quantum
 
physics?
 
General
 
Environment
 
More
 
Specifically…
 
Key 
 
Pairs
 
Do
 
You
 
Have
 
This?
 
Notes
 
Merger
 
of 
 
/
ɑ
/
 
and
 
/
ɔ
/
 
before
 
nasals
 
don
 
 
dawn
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
 
Playing
 
out
 
in
 
the
 
North
 
Midland,
 
Upper
 
Midwestern,
 
and
 
Inland
 
Northern
 
areas,
 
as
 
well
 
as
 
all
 
of 
 
the
 
western
 
states.
 
Very
 
little
 
prevalence
 
in
 
the
 
South
 
 
In
 
opposition
 
with
 
the
 
Northern
 
Cities
 
Shift
 
(see
 
below),
 
and
 
positively
 
correlated
 
with
 
rural
 
location
 
or
 
identification.
 
 
St.
 
Louis
 
is
 
on
 
the
 
southeastern
 
border
 
of 
 
the
 
areas
 
in
 
which
 
the
 
merger
 
is
 
playing
 
out.
 
Speakers
 
who
 
do
 
not
 
merge
 
tend
 
to
 
identify
 
more
 
with
 
St.
 
Louis
 
than
 
with
 
outlying
 
areas.
 
Speakers
 
who
 
merge
 
tend
 
to
 
be
 
less
 
identified
 
with
 
St.
 
Louis.
 
(Source:
 
Tivoli
 
Majors,
 
p.c.)
 
before
 
/t/
 
cot 
 
 
caught 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
before
 
/k/
 
tock 
 
 
talk 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
Before
 
/l/
 
caller 
 
 
collar 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
Merger
 
of 
 
/
I
/
 
and
 
/
ε
/
 
before
 
nasals
 
 pin
 
 
 pen
 
bin
 
 
been
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
 
Tell 
 
a
 
tale,
 
go
 
to
 
hell…
 
 
Strictly
 
Southern,
 
but
 
widespread
 
among
 
African
American
 
dialects
 
because
 
of 
 
large
scale
 
migration
 
from
 
the
 
South
 
into
 
the
 
northern
 
industrial
 
cities
 
in
 
the
 
early
 
20
th
 
c.
 
 
Less
 
prevalent
 
with
 
low
 
vowels
 
Lax
tense
 
merger
 
in
 
front
 
vowels
 
before
 
/l/
 
high
 
 fill 
 
 
 feel 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
Mid
 
 fell 
 
 
 fail 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
Low
 
 full 
 
 
 fool 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
Merger
 
of 
 
/
ɑ
/
 
and
 
/o/
 
before
 
/r/
 
card 
 
 
cord 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
 
Originated
 
in
 
white
 
Appalachian
 
dialects
 
(and
 
from
 
there
 
to
 
African
American
 
dialects
 
of 
 
the
 
Midwest,
 
i.e.
 
St.
 
Louis)
 
but
 
is
 
propagating
 
 –
 
slowly
 
 –
 
through
 
Southern
 
dialect
 
areas
 
Merger
 
of 
 
/e/
 
and
 
/
ε
/
 
before
 
/r/
 
Mary 
 
 
merry 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
These
 
mergers
 
are
 
widespread
 
and
 
correlate
 
only
 
weakly
 
with
 
dialect
 
boundaries
 
Merger
 
of 
 
/æ/
 
and
 
/
ε
/
 
before
 
/r/
 
merry 
 
 
marry 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
Merger
 
of 
 
/iw/
 
and
 
/u/
 
dew 
 
 
do
 
news
 
 
gnus
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
 
ENG4820
 
|
 
W
EEK
 
15
 
|
 
P
AGE
 
2
 
OF
 
10
 
Getting
 
To
 
Know
 
Your
 
Dialect
 
Markers
 
St.
 
Louis
 
is
 
a
 
border
 
area
 
between
 
areas
 
undergoing
 
major
 
reorganizations
 
of 
 
their
 
vowel
 
systems.
 
The
 
features
 
can
 
be
 
difficult
 
to
 
pin
 
down
 
in
 
isolation.
 
Read
 
through
 
the
 
following
 
passages,
 
which
 
contain
 
words
 
that
 
will
 
tell
 
you
 
where
 
you
 
are
 
in
 
relation
 
to
 
some
 
of 
 
the
 
major
 
changes:
 
1.
 
Yesterday
 
I
 
was
 
going
 
for
 
a
 
drive
 
and
 
saw
 
a
 
man
 
who
 
was
 
standing
 
on
 
a
 
street
 
corner
 
eating
 
a
 
ham
 
sandwich.
 
He
 
seemed
 
pretty
 
glad
 
to
 
see
 
me,
 
but
 
then
 
he
 
ran
 
away
 
along
 
a
 
path
 
leading
 
into
 
the
 
park.
 
2.
 
My
 
roommate
 
Todd
 
got
 
pretty
 
sick
 
a
 
few
 
weeks
 
ago.
 
He
 
had
 
a
 
pretty
 
bad
 
cough
 
and
 
kept
 
spitting
 
up
 
these
 
big
 
blobs
 
of 
 
mucous.
 
Our
 
third
 
roommate
 
Tom
 
and
 
I
 
got
 
so
 
grossed
 
out
 
by
 
it
 
all
 
that
 
we
 
made
 
him
 
sleep
 
on
 
a
 
cot
 
out
 
in
 
the
 
laundry
 
room.
 
He
 
tried
 
to
 
cop
 
some
 
Nyquil
 
off 
 
of 
 
me
 
but
 
I
 
didn’t
 
have
 
any.
 
I
 
wrote
 
about
 
the
 
whole
 
thing
 
on
 
my
 
blog.
 
Shift 
 
Environment 
 
Key
 
Words
 
Do
 
You
 
Have
 
This? 
 
Raising
 
&
 
diphthongization
 
of 
 
/æ/
 
Before
 
nasals
 
man
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
mam
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
stand 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
Before
 
voiced
 
consonants
 
mad 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
glad 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
stab
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
Before
 
voiceless
 
consonants
 
mat 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
that 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
 path
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
Fronting
 
and
 
lowering
 
of 
 
/
ɔ
/
 
Before
 
nasals
 
con
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
don
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
tom
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
Before
 
voiced
 
consonants
 
blog
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
blob
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
todd 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
Before
 
voiceless
 
consonants
 
cough
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
cot 
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
cop
 
YES
 
/
 
NO
 
 
ENG4820
 
|
 
W
EEK
 
15
 
|
 
P
AGE
 
3
 
OF
 
10
 
Chain
 
Shifts
 
in
 
Action
 
THE
 
NORTHERN
 
CITIES
 
SHIFT
 
The
 
Northern
 
Cities
 
Shift
 
is
 
a
 
massive
 
and
 
ongoing
 
reorganizations
 
of 
 
the
 
vowel
 
inventories
 
associated
 
with
 
the
 
urban
 
centers
 
of 
 
the
 
Upper
 
Midwest
 
and
 
Northeast.
 
The
 
blue
 
line
 
encloses
 
areas
 
in
 
which
 
/
Λ
/
 
is
 
backed.
 
The
 
red
 
line
 
encloses
 
areas
 
in
 
which
 
/æ/
 
is
 
diphthongized
 
to
 
[e
ə
]
 
even
 
before
 
non
nasal
 
consonants.
 
The
 
areas
 
enclosed
 
by
 
all
 
three
 
lines
 
may
 
be
 
considered
 
the
 
"core"
 
of 
 
the
 
NCVS;
 
it
 
is
 
most
 
consistently
 
present
 
in
 
Syracuse,
 
Rochester,
 
Buffalo,
 
Detroit,
 
and
 
Chicago.
 
(Source).
 
The
 
numbers
 
(1)
 
through
 
(5)
 
represent
 
the
 
extent
 
of 
 
the
 
shift,
 
with
 
the
 
geographic
 
distribution
 
shrinking
 
as
 
the
 
number
 
gets
 
higher.
 
In
 
other
 
words,
 
the
 
pronunciation
 
in
 
(1)
 
characterizes
 
the
 
entire
 
region
 
of 
 
the
 
Northern
 
Cities
 
Shift,
 
whereby
 
the
 
vowels
 
in
 
man,
 
had,
 
cat 
 
approaches
 
the
 
diphthong
 
in
 
the
 
second
 
syllable
 
of 
 
idea.
 
The
 
pronunciation
 
in
 
(6),
 
where
 
the
 
vowel
 
in
 
kit 
 
starts
 
to
 
sound
 
like
 
the
 
vowel
 
in
 
 pet 
 
on
 
the
 
other
 
hand,
 
is
 
generally
 
found
 
only
 
in
 
the
 
core
 
urban
 
areas
 
such
 
as
 
Syracuse,
 
Rochester,
 
Buffalo,
 
Detroit,
 
Chicago.
 
/i
ə
/
idea
/æ/
man
/
ɑ
/
cot 
/
ɔ
/
caught 
/
Λ
/
cut 
/
ε
/
 pet 
1
 
2
 
34
 
5
/
I
/
kit 
6
 

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