owers are not the only source of spectacle inthe wilderness.
An opportunity for late color is providedby the berries of wildﬂowers,shrubs,and trees.
Bane-berry presents its tiny white
owers in spring but inlate summer bursts forth with clusters of red berries.Bunchberry,a ground-cover plant,puts out red berriesin the fall,and the red berries of wintergreen last fromautumn well into winter.In California,the bright red,
st-sized clusters of Christmas berries can be seengrowing beside highways for up to six months of the year.[Italics added.]
James Crockett et al.,
Occasionally the topic sentence may be withhelduntil the end of the paragraph
but only if the earliersentences hang together so well that readers perceivetheir direction,if not their exact point.The opening sen-tences of the following paragraph state facts,so they aresupporting material rather than topic sentences,butthey strongly suggest a central idea.The topic sentenceat the end is hardly a surprise.
Tobacco chewing starts as soon as people beginstirring.Those who have fresh supplies soak the new leaves in water and add ashes from the hearth to the wad.Men,women,and children chew tobacco and allare addicted to it.Once there was a shortage of tobaccoin Kaobawa
s village and I was plagued for a week by early morning visitors who requested permission tocollect my cigarette butts in order to make a wad of chewing tobacco.Normally,if anyone is short of tobacco,he can request a share of someone else
s al-ready chewed wad,or simply borrow the entire wad when its owner puts it down somewhere.
Tobacco is soimportant to them that their word for
being without tobacco.
The Fierce People
nd that some professional writers,espe-cially journalists and informal essayists,do not alwaysuse clear topic sentences.In college writing,however,topic sentences are often necessary for clarifying thelines of an argument or reporting the research in a
eld.In business writing,topic sentences (along with head-ings) are essential,since readers often scan for infor-mation.Try to develop a
exible approach to writing.Al-though it is generally wise to use topic sentences,at