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Geometry Lesson 9- Introduction to Logic

# Geometry Lesson 9- Introduction to Logic

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This is an introductory lesson on logic for high school geometry students including truth tables, Euler diagrams, negations and conditional statements.
This is an introductory lesson on logic for high school geometry students including truth tables, Euler diagrams, negations and conditional statements.

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10/28/2013

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GeometryLesson 9Objectives
1.

Conditional Statements2.

Manipulations of Conditional Statements
Vocab
1.

2.

3.

4.

Time Activity
Do Now:
Examine each of the following
real

Police begin campaign to run down jaywalkers(2)

Safety experts say school bus passengers should be belted(3)

Panda mating fails; Veterinarian takes over(4)

Eye drops off shelf (5)

Enraged cow injures farmer with ax(7)

Miners refuse to work after death(8)

Juvenile court to try shooting defendant(9)

Stolen painting found by tree(10)

Two soviet ships collide, one dies(11)

2 sisters reunited after 18 years in checkout counter(12)

Drunken drivers paid \$1000 in „84

Logic and Conditional Statements:
As the “do now” illustrates, language can be
misleading. One person may intend to say one thing, but the other person hearssomething totally different. This leads us to some problems in math:

We have to use words in math. We use them in definitions, in stating rules, inposing problems.

Math
has to mean the same thing to everyone!!!
If I write down a mathematicalrule, even if I use words, it has to have the same meaning to every person whoreads it or else mathematicians in different locations will each have their own setof rules and definitions and no one can build on what others have created.
o

Math is
collaborative

meaning we‟ve all built its rules up together.
o

Math is also
absolute
meaning when something is stated mathematically,it must be true to everyone and everywhere.

This brings us to a conclusion: when we use words in math, we must all agreeupon rules those words will follow so that we all understand what the others aresaying.
Exercise 1:
Write down three rules you live your life by. They may be rules imposed byparents or schools or the government, or rules you set for yourself.(1)

Rule 1:

In If-Then form(2)

Rule 2:In If-Then form:(3)

Rule 3:In If-Then form:
Exercise 2:
If-Then Statements(1)

Ex: If it‟s raining
meatballs, then the laws of physics have broken.a.

What is the
hypothesis
?b.

What is the
conclusion?
(2)

Ex: Good students get “A”s.
a.

Rewrite the rule above as a conditional statementb.

What is the
hypothesis?
c.

What is the
conclusion?
(3)

Ex: Pigs can fly.a.

Rewrite the rule above as a conditional statementb.

What is the
hypothesis?
c.

What is the
conclusion?
(4)

Ex: I need bucket-loads of coffee in the morning.a.

Rewrite the rule above as a conditional statementb.

What is the
hypothesis?
c.

What is the
conclusion?

NOTE:
Because
mathematicians are LAZY

they don‟t like to write out the whole
statement all the time so they usually choose a letter to represent each statement. A
conditional statement is actually two statements linked by the “if
-
then” structure so we
let the hypothesis be
and the conclusion be
. Then we let the arrow

stand for “if
-
then”.

(1)

Let
” represent the statement “you (will) become president”, let
” represent thestatement “coffee for everyone”, let “
” represent the statement “we all run around
fran
tically”.
a.

Write the statement “
b.

Write the statement “
c.

Write the statement “

Exercise 3:
Notice that the statements above aren‟t necessarily true. Just because
Conditional Statement
All rules or statements can be written as “if
-
then” sta
tements also known as
conditionalstatements
.
The “If” part of the statement is called the
hypothesis.
It sets a condition that when fulfilled means the “then” part of the statement called

we‟ve used the correct formatting doesn‟t mean our statement is now definitely true.
This leads us to the idea of a
truth value
.(1)

Ex: Let the statement

be “Lizzy is a teacher”. Let the statement

be “Lizzy eatsstudents for breakfast”.

a.

What is the truth value of
? (T or F)

b.

What is the truth value of

(T or F)

c.

What is the truth value of

(T or F)

d.

What is the truth value of
? (T or F)

e.

What is the truth value of

? (T or F)

f.

Write the conditional statement
.

g.

What is the truth value of

h.

Write the negation of the conditional statement,


i.

What is the truth value of

?

(1)

A
truth table
helps us figure out the different combinations of truth values thatcan exist for a statement. Fill in the
truth table
for a statement and its negation:

(2)

The truth values of conditional statements can get a little tricky. Something thatcan help us understand the truth of conditional statements is called a
EulerDiagram
. It shows you physically how a conditional statement works. Consider
the statement “if it is snowing, then it is coldoutside.”

Notice how in order for it to be snowing,
it must also be cold outside

since the “it issnowing” circle is inside the “it is cold outside”
circle.

So if you want to draw a
Euler Diagram
for
,
is the inside circle and
is the outside circle.
Manipulations of Conditional Statements:
Now we are ready to examine the truthvalue of conditional statements and their manipulations.
Exercise 1:

Your parent says to you “if you get an A in geometry, then I will buy you anew graphing calculator.”
Let

be “you get an A in geometry”
Let

be “I will buy you a new graphing calculator”

Truth Value
A statement has only two states, either
true
or
false
.
Negation
You can reverse the state of a conditional statement by adding “not” to the conclusion.
This form of the statement is called
the negation
of the statement. We represent the
It issnowingIt is coldoutside