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This is a logic lesson for use in a high school geometry course. It explores how direct and indirect proofs work and has students complete logic proofs using every-day rules.

This is a logic lesson for use in a high school geometry course. It explores how direct and indirect proofs work and has students complete logic proofs using every-day rules.

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GeometryLesson 11Objectives

1.

Direct proofs2.

Indirect proofs

Vocab

1.

Law of Syllogism 2.

Premises 3.

Direct Proof 4.

IndirectProof 5.

Theorem

Time ActivityDo Now:

Here were the household rules I grew up with. I had a mom, a dad, an older brother(Johnny) and a younger brother (Robbie) and me (Lizzy). My mom is younger than my dad.

Rule 1:

The cook is never the person who does the dishes.

Rule 2:

Johnny does the dishes on Mon/Wed, Lizzy does the dishes on Tues/Thurs, Daddoes the dishes on Fri/Sun, and Robby does the dishes on Sat.

Rule 4:

If someone isn’t home for dinner the night they are supposed to do dishes, then the

person who is closest to them in age, but younger, has to do the dishes.

Rule 5:

If Johnny, Lizzy and Robby don’t come home for dinner

, then Dad will always haveto do the dishes.(1)

Based on the rules above, who cooks dinner every day? Don’t just give me an answer,

Explainwhich rules led you to your conclusion.

(2)

Someone called Mom one night and told her they weren’t going to be home for dinner.Robbie then had to do the dishes that night even though it wasn’t Saturday. We now know

TWO

pieces of info. What do we now know and

prove

using the rules why we know it.

(3)

On a Friday night, no one called to say they would miss dinner but Johnny did the dishes. Whathappened?

Prove why that must have happened using the rules.

(4)

Johnny is convinced that Dad won’t be home for dinner. Explain,

using the rules

, why he mustbe mistaken.

Direct Proofs:Exercise1:

Consider the following logical argument. This is an example of a

direct proof:

Given:

Lizzy calls home saying she won’t be able to do the dishes

Prove:

Robby can’t have cooked dinner that night

Statement ReasonRobbie is closest in age to Lizzy but younger Given

Lizzy calls home saying she won’t be able to do the dishes

Given

If Lizzy can’t do the dishes, then Robbie has to do the dishes

Rule 4

If Robby has to do the dishes, then he can’t have been the cook

Rule 1

Theorem:

Therefore if Lizzy calls home saying she won’t be able to do the dishes,then Robby can’t have cooked dinner that night.

Law of Syllogism

Direct proofs

are proofs that string together statements in a logical order. To do a direct proof youneed the following law:

Exercise 2:

Direct proofs start with one true statement,

and then we use the rules of math, or other

theorems we’ve proven, or definitions, to reason from

to the thing we’re trying to prove,

. Try it

yourself. Prove the statement “mom always cooks” using my household rules. (Hint: you’ll need the

contrapositive of

rule 1.)Statement Reason

If Johnny, Lizzy and Robby don’t come home for dinner, then Dad will always

have to do the dishes.

Rule 5If Dad does the dishes, then he is not the cook Contrapositiveof Rule 1If Dad is not the cook, then mom must be the cook Statements 1and 2

Exercise 3:

(1)

Rearrange the following statements to form a proof.

If you eat Fugu fish, your tongue will go numbIf you go to Japan, you will have to eat Fugu fishIf you are not able to eat delicious sushi, then there was no reason to go to Japan.If your tongue goes numb, then you will not be able to eat delicious sushi.(2)

What “theorem” did you just prove?

Indirect Proofs:

Indirect proofs rely on understanding truth tables and what the negation of aconditional statement is.

Exercise 1:

Explore(1)

Suppose you have a really obvious statement like “Roses smell good.” It’s hard to prove thisstatement directly. Where do you start? If it’s a rose, then…. Hmmm. There’s nowhere to go.

a.

Write the negation of the statement “Roses smell good.”

Rosses do

n’t smell good

b.

Recall that any statement can have only two possible truth values. What are they?T and F c.

A statement and its negation must have opposite truth values. This means thati.)

If the negation is true, then the original statement isFalse ii.)

If the negation is false, then the original statement isTrue d.

So if we can’t prove a statement true (but we want to prove it true because it’s so obviouslytrue) we can instead prove that it’s negation is:

false (2)

Let’s try to prove that “roses smell good”. Let’s

operate on two obvious assumptions

People like smelling things that smell good

People enjoy stopping to smell roses.

Statement Reason

→

→

→

Law of Syllogism (or in Algebra, the Transitive Property).The way we do Direct Proofs

A

syllogism

is when you link several conditional statements together, and then use this link toconclude that the first hypothesis leads to the final conclusion.Therefore

→

Premises:

We call each separate statement in a direct proof a

premise.Theorem:

The final conditional statement that we’ve proved, the

→

statement is called a

Roses don’t smell good

Assume negation

If things don’t smell good, then people won’t like smelling them

Contrapositive of Given (1)

Therefore, people won’t like smelling roses

Statements (1) and(2)This

contradicts

the fact that people enjoy stopping to smell roses. Given (2)

So since “Roses don’t smell good” is a false statement, then its negation“Roses do smell good” must be a true statement.

Definition of negation.

Exercise 2:

Steps in an indirect proof.

Exercise 3:

Examples(1)

While driving her 1954 Chevy to the market, Miss Piggy suddenly worries that she may havelocked her keys in her apartment. Use one or more of the following statements to prove that

she couldn’t have forgotten her keys.

Given:

Miss Piggy never leaves her apartment unlocked

Given:

She keeps every key she owns on one large key ring.

Prove:

She couldn’t have forgotten her keys.

Statement ReasonMiss piggy forgot her keys Assume negation

If miss piggy forgot her keys, then it’s on her

one large key ring Given 1

If it’s on her one large key ring, then her car key is also on the key

ringGivenThis contradicts the fact that she is driving Rule of driving: keysare requiredTherefore the fact that miss piggy forgot her keys is false, meaning itsnegation: that miss piggy did not forget her keys is true.Definition of negation(2)

Use the household rules from the “do now” to prove the following.

Given:

the theorem we proved before the mom always does the cooking.

Prove:

Johnny is wrong if

he believes that Dad won’t be home for dinner. Prove that Dad has to

be home for dinner.Statement Reason

Dad won’t be home for dinner.

AssumenegationMom is the person closest to Dad in age, but younger than him. Given

If Dad doesn’t come to

dinner, then the person closest to his age but youngerthan him has to do the dishes.Rule 4If the person closest to his age but younger than him has to do the dishes, thenmom has to do the dishes.Statements1 and 2This contradicts the fact that mom always is the cook Given

Therefore the fact that Dad won’t be home for dinner is False, meaning the

negation that Dad will be home for dinner is true.Definition of negation

Postulates vs. Theorems:Indirect Proof Step 1:

Negate the statement we want to prove.

Step 2:

Use this negation in a direct proof until you come to a conclusion.

Step 3:

Show that the conclusion contradicts something we know

is definitely true

.