Naval Postgraduate School Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Monterey, California
Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
Radiating systems must operate in a complex changing environment that interacts with propagating electromagnetic waves. Commonly observed propagation effects are depicted below.
TRANSMITTER RECEIVER EARTHIONOSPHERE12345SATELLITE1 DIRECT2 REFLECTED3 TROPOSCATTER 4 IONOSPHERIC HOP5 SATELLITE RELAY6 GROUND WAVE6
Troposphere: lower regions of the atmosphere (less than 10 km)Ionosphere: upper regions of the atmosphere (50 km to 1000 km)Effects on waves: reflection, refraction, diffraction, attenuation, scattering, anddepolarization.