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Separating Equal Groups of Ones

# Separating Equal Groups of Ones

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Comprehensive Teacher's Guide Grades 1-2 Lesson 4-4
Comprehensive Teacher's Guide Grades 1-2 Lesson 4-4

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07/09/2013

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I
n division,we start with a number thatis to be divided into groups,and wewant to find either the number or the sizeof those groups.These two situations—number of groups and size of groups—are modeled differently.When we divide18 into groups of 3,we want to find outhow many groups we’ll get.Because wecan successively measure off groups of 3from the 18,this model is often called“repeated subtraction.”In the other model,we divide 18 into 3groups to find the number in each group.Because this is usually done by distribut-ing the blocks evenly among 3 groups,itis often known as the “sharing”model of division.Children are familiar withthe sharing process from their daily lives and model it easily.
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Finding the Number of Groups
For a more direct connection with multiplication, begin with the “how many groups”or repeated subtraction meaning of division. Have children take 24blocks. Present the problem:
There are 24 blocks.Each child gets to take 8 blocks.How many children will get blocks?
Have volunteers each take 8 blocks in turn, continuing until there are noblocks left. Ask,
How many children have blocks? If you put the blocks together again, how many wouldthere be?
Have children recombine the blocks to check. While the inverse relationship(8
ǂ
3 = 24) may be obvious to some, not all children will make the connec-tion. Continue to explore this relationship over time.Repeat this process a couple of times, beginning with a different number of blocks and a different number of blocks for each child.
4-4
Separating Equal Groups of Ones
4-4
Focus
Developing meanings for division with thesingle blocks

The division example 18 ÷3 can represent 18 divided in equalgroups of 3 (left) or 18 divided in 3 equal groups (right).

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When appropriate, introduce the division sentence 24÷8 = 3. Help childrento read the division sign and to identify what part of the physical model eachnumber represents. Explain that we can use division to find the number of groups, summarizing this way:
24
ǃ
8= 3in allin each groupgroups
Children can also represent the repeated subtraction model of division on num-ber lines. For 24 ÷ 8, for example, children first show 24 blocks on a number line and then remove groups of 8, placing each group on another line (or other- wise making sure they remain in separate groups, perhaps on paper plates).
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Finding the Number in Each Group
Present the following story problem to illustrate the sharing model of division.
There are 20 blocks for 4 children to share.How may blocks will each child get?
Choose four volunteers to model the problem. They will most likely distributethe blocks one by one. That is, they will each take one block, then another,continuing until there are no blocks left. Repeat with several examples usingdifferent numbers of blocks and children. When appropriate, connect this process to a division sentence. Help childrenrelate each number to their physical actions with the blocks. Summarize this way:
20
ǃ
4=5in all groupsin each group
To continue making the connection between division and multiplication, ask,
If you put the blocks together again, how many would there be?How can you write a number sentence to show putting the blocks back together?What do you notice about this sentence and the division sentence?
Understanding the inverse relationship of multiplication and division allowschildren to use multiplication facts in order to find quotients. For example,in order to find 8÷2, children can think about what number they wouldmultiply by 2 to get 8. Many experiences with separating and combiningequal groups of blocks are essential for children to grasp this relationship.Number lines can be used here as well. For example to model 20÷4,children take the 20 blocks and distribute them one at a time to each of 4 number lines.
4-44-4

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Applying the Two Meanings of Division
When children understand the basic meanings of division, they should beexposed to the normal variety of story problems within your curriculum.Also encourage children to create their own problems.Note that when children are solving problems, they usually model the meaningof division suggested by the story. Children may be less sure as to how toproceed when given a division example out of a particular context.Present the example 21÷7 and have children demonstrate their techniquesfor finding the answer. Some children may make groups of 7, while othersmay make 7 groups — this is exactly what you want to happen. Ask students what they notice. You want them to note that there are two different modelsfor 21÷3, but that both have the same answer.Have children explore a few more examples using the two different approachesfor each example: finding groups of a certain number, or finding a certainnumber of groups. Each time, ask,