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Cardio Disorder

Cardio Disorder

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Published by: hotrad on May 13, 2009
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Cardiomegaly
Cardiomegaly is a condition wherein the heart enlarges in a cardiothoracic ratio of more than 0.50. It can be attributed to a lot of causes, but mostly it is because of low heart output, otherwise referred to as a cardiac failure. A cardiothoracic ratio is the way tomeasure the size of a person’s heart. In this case, cardiomegaly occurs if the heart is more than 50 percent bigger than the inner diameter of one’s rib cage.Cardiomegaly is assumed to be the direct effect of the thickening of the heartmuscles and that happens when the heart is given an increased workload. This increase workload on the other hand, may be dueto other health conditions present in the body. Viral illnesses and previous heart attacks can cause the heart to overwork. Drugabuse, inflammation of the heart, and uncontrolled hypertension are the known issues that may give rise to cardiomegaly.Exercise is also a factor. It is believed that most athletes have enlarged hearts, but in this case, theirs is not considered to be amedical condition at all. So in essence, cardiomegaly is not always bad, at least not for sports people. But to a regular person,having an enlarged heart is not normal at all.The heart’s right or left ventricle may be enlarged, and in some instances, both ventricles can be affected. This is calledcardiomegaly due to ventricular hypertrophy. If the left heart is affected, it is called left ventricular hypertrophy. Right ventricular hypertrophy if the right ventricle is affected. This condition is very common to people who have chronic systolic heart failure or cardiomyopathies. Cardiomegaly can also be due to dilation.Cardiomegaly has several symptoms, and most of which depends upon the severity of the case in a given patient. Usually, all thesymptoms associated to the heart’s failure to pump blood properly are observed. That could mean breathlessness, dizziness, andthe quickening or the slowing of one’s pulse rate. Other symptoms such as swelling of the ankles and legs, including tendernessin the upper right quadrant, can be felt. Ascites, or the presence of fluid in the abdominal cavity is also likely to develop.Cardiomegaly can be treated through the use of diuretics. Diuretics are prescription drugs that enhance the output of serous fluidsin the body, especially if ascites is present. Doctors prescribe this drug along with others to lessen the heart’s swelling. ACEinhibitors are also given. ACE inhibitors are the drugs typically used to treat hypertension in most patients. Beta-blockers andnitrates are also used and both have seen uses in giving aid to people with other heart conditions as well. In essence, the treatmentof this disease is directed to the treatment of its underlying causes.But cardiomegaly is believed not be the disease itself, but just a sign of a possibly more severe problem. There are a lot of conditions which can give rise to cardiomegaly and two of which are heart valve disorders and high blood pressure. But other diseases, such as severe anemia, thyroid disorders may also be the possible culprits. Even the presence of excessive iron and theabnormal buildup of protein in the body can give rise to cardiomegaly.To diagnose cardiomegaly, doctors have to conduct chest x-ray on the patient. Usually, this disease is identified through anincidental test on the upper body, even if it is not directed to the disease in itself. To confirm the diagnosis, doctors usuallyrequest an ultrasound to the heart. This is more commonly referred to as the electrocardiogram test.
 
Today, a lot of researches are being conducted to treat cardiomegaly. The goal is to reach the full treatment of the disease, together with theconditions that are associated to it. The best possible treatment, either through the use of new drugs or methods, is being clinically tested.Hopefully, a cure will be introduced very soon.
Cardiomyopathy
It is a disease of the heart muscle. It is a condition where the muscle of the heart is abnormal without an obvious cause. There arefour main types of cardiomyopathy:
1.
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)
2.
Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM)
3.
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy (RCM)
4.
Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy (ARVC)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy :
In HCM, also known as hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, the muscular walls of the heart become thickened which prevents the heart from filling up with blood properly and stops it being pumped from the heart.Patients with this condition suffer from short of breath, experience chest pains and palpitations, and may often faint. The exactcause of HCM is unknown, although it’s usually inherited. Screening is offered to families of those with the condition to do theearly prevention.
Dilated cardiomyopathy :
In DCM, the muscular walls of the heart become dilated. This causes the heart to become larger and the heart muscle weaker,making it unable to pump the blood normally. Symptoms of DCM include tiredness and shortness of breath while exercising or resting. People with this condition may also have heart palpitations, fainting episodes, chest pain and notice their ankles becoming swollen. It can affect people of any age; however it is more common between the ages of 20 and 60 but men are moreat risk of developing.Although it is not very clear about the causes but a viral or other infection of the heart, or part of an autoimmune process where,for an unknown reason, the body attacks itself. Extra usage of alcohol and drug misuse, and exposure to certain chemicals and pesticides, can cause the problem.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy :
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy is caused by stiffening of the heart muscles. It’s most common in the tropics, where it’s often due toscarring of the heart muscle that occurs for no apparent reason.
 
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy :
This condition occurs when heart muscle is damaged and is gradually replaced with fat and scar tissue. It is usuallyinherited and is more common in males. It mostly presentin teenage and younger adult years.With this condition the person may suffer palpitations,fainting, chest pain and shortness of breath, caused byabnormal electrical heart rhythms or weakening of theheart’s ability to pump.
Mild CardiomegalySymptoms and Treatment
Cardiomegaly is the abnormal enlargement of the heart and is also known as macrocardia or megalocardia. Mild cardiomegaly isa common heart condition in many people and is more prevalent among athletes. The exact cause of the condition is not known but medical research shows that underlying conditions are the cause in most cases. Some common causes of this condition arevalvular disease, congenital heart disorders, and alcoholic cardiomyopathy. In some cases, it is possible that mild cardiomegaly isa symptom of a more serious, under-lying disease or illness. The most common diseases likely to cause mild cardiomegaly areIschemic heart disease, heart cancer and 1q deletion. Mild cardiomegaly can affect people of all age groups and sexes.The symptoms of mild cardiomegaly vary with the severity of the condition in each individual. One of the most commonsymptoms of this condition is failure of the heart to pump normally. Other symptoms of mild cardiomegaly are swelling of thelegs and ankles. Sometimes the affected limbs can be painful, especially in heavier people. In other cases they will swell but withno pain. People with cardiomegaly will experience tenderness in the right upper quadrant of the heart. Another common symptomis ascites. Ascites is the accumulation of serous fluid in the abdomen. It is often represented by a swollen abdomen. The fluid isusually clear, yellow in color and benign. This symptom always signals that something is amiss in the body. In the case of mildcardiomegaly, it shows that either there is congestive heart failure or renal failure. Shortness of breath and difficulty in breathingis another major symptom of mild cardiomegaly. Ventricular hypertrophy, heart murmur, dizziness, fainting, edema and palpitations are other common symptoms. All these are serious and life-threatening. They require immediate medical attention assoon as they manifest themselves.

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