Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
5Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
08 NMR Theory Chapter 1

08 NMR Theory Chapter 1

Ratings: (0)|Views: 79 |Likes:
Published by samster

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: samster on May 13, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/06/2011

pdf

text

original

 
 NMR THEORY 1
Chapter 1
NMR Theory
In order to understand NMR, one needs to have a basic understanding of the principlesbehind how an NMR signal is generated and manipulated. This chapter briefly coversNMR fundamentals, from the origins of the signal, to the acquisition and processing of the signal. There are numerous texts available which give a more detailed discussion of these principles. For the purposes of this dissertation, only the relevant terms will beintroduced and discussed. More intricate details of the NMR phenomena and termsrelating to it can be found in texts by Callaghan (1991), Abragam (1961), and Morris(1985).
1.1. The Electromagnetic Field
In classical electrodynamics, the magnetic field,
 H 
r
, induced by a current,
 I 
, in an
n
-turncircular conductor of radius,
, is given by (Weast, 1971)
nI  H 
π 
2
=
r
. [1.1.1]
 
 NMR THEORY 2
The above equation holds for a field produced
via
electrical induction and can bemodified to include the effects of the sample’s bulk susceptibility,
m
 χ 
, to give theexpression for the total magnetic field as (Schwarz, 1990)
 H  B
m
rr
)1(
0
χ  µ 
+=
[1.1.2]where
0
 µ 
is the permeability constant of free space. A careful study of Eq. [1.1.2] showsthat depending on the susceptibility of the sample, the field strength within the samplecan be greater than the applied field. Many authors choose to call
 H 
r
the magnetic fieldand
 B
r
the flux density. But in classical magneto-statics,
 B
r
is indisputably thefundamental quantity so, in this work,
 B
r
will be referred to as the magnetic field.
1.2. Nuclear Spin
Although the ensemble average of nuclei are observed in NMR, a basic understanding of the individual nucleus gives us insight as to what is happening as a whole.A fundamental tenet of quantum mechanics states that the angular momentum (
P
r
) of anucleus can only take on discrete (quantized) values given by)1(
+=
 I  I P
hr
[1.2.1]
 
 NMR THEORY 3
where
h
is Planck’s constant divided by 2
π 
and
 I 
 is the total nuclear spin quantum number(,...,1,,0
2321
=
 I 
). Spin is an inherent property of all nuclei, and the total nuclear spin is the resultof the pairing of the spin for each nucleon in thenucleus. In order for a nucleus to be NMRobservable, it must have a non-zero value of 
 I 
,which implies an incomplete spin pairing of protons and/or neutrons. In addition to the magnitude, the orientation of the angularmomentum vector is quantized. This implies that the z-component of the angularmomentum is limited to values given by
i z
mP
h
=
for
m
i
 
=
-I, -I+
1,…,
 I-
1
 , I 
[1.2.2]where
m
i
 
is referred to as the directional (or magnetic) spin number. For a spin-
21
 nucleus, the possible orientations of 
P
r
are represented in Fig. 1.2.1, where
hr
23
=
P
,2
h
±=
 z
P
, and
    
=
PP
 z
r
1
cos
θ 
.The nuclear dipole moment,
 µ 
r
, is related to the nuclear spin angular momentum by thegyromagnetic ratio,
γ  
, of the specific nucleus (Eq. [1.2.3]).Fig. 1.2.1. The angularmomentum of a spin-
21
nucleuscan have only two possibleorientations.

Activity (5)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
adamshih liked this
adamshih liked this
cev20 liked this
raviibt liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->