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05 Table of Contents

05 Table of Contents

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Published by Sam Han

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Published by: Sam Han on May 13, 2009
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TABLE OF CONTENTS xi
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments ........................................................................................... iPreface .......................................................................................................... iiiAbstract ....................................................................................................... viiTable of Contents ..........................................................................................xiList of Figures ............................................................................................ xivList of Tables .............................................................................................. xvi1.
 
NMR Theory ........................................................................................ 1
1.1.
 
The Electromagnetic Field ...........................................................................11.2.
 
Nuclear Spin .................................................................................................21.3.
 
Rotating Frame of Reference and Radio-Frequency Pulses .........................81.4.
 
The Free Induction Decay (FID) ................................................................111.5.
 
Fourier Transform and the Frequency Domain ..........................................121.6.
 
Relaxation Time Constants ........................................................................171.6.1.
 
T
1
Relaxation (Spin-Lattice or Longitudinal Relaxation) ..............171.6.2.
 
T
2
Relaxation (Spin-Spin Relaxation) ...........................................21
2.
 
Spin Manipulation ............................................................................. 25
2.1.
 
The Chemical Shift and Binomial Pulses ..................................................252.2.
 
Spin Echoes (SE), Stimulated Echoes (STE) and Spurious Echoes ..........282.3.
 
Magnetic Resonance Imaging ....................................................................312.3.1.
 
Effect of Magnetic Field Gradients on Spins .................................312.3.1.1.Frequency Encoding ...........................................................322.3.1.2.Slice Selection ....................................................................332.3.1.3.Phase Encoding ..................................................................362.3.2.
 
 k
-space and Imaging ......................................................................372.3.2.1.Two-Dimensional Fourier Imaging ....................................382.3.2.2.Saw-Tooth Echo-Planar Imaging .......................................402.4.
 
Diffusion ....................................................................................................422.4.1.
 
The Diffusion Process and Stochastic Modeling ...........................42
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS xii
2.4.2.
 
Measuring Diffusion with Pulsed-Field Gradient NMR ................44
3.
 
Murine Tumor
19
F Experiments ...................................................... 50
3.1.
 
Radiation Therapy ......................................................................................513.1.1.
 
Abstract ..........................................................................................513.1.2.
 
Introduction ....................................................................................523.1.2.1.Oxygen Sensitive
19
F MRI and MRS .................................533.1.2.2.Hypoxia and Radioresistance .............................................543.1.3.
 
Experimental Methods ...................................................................563.1.3.1.Hardware and Materials .....................................................563.1.3.2.Animal Preparation ............................................................563.1.3.3.Data Acquisition ................................................................573.1.3.4.Radiation Therapy ..............................................................583.1.3.5.Data Analysis .....................................................................593.1.4.
 
Results ............................................................................................603.1.5.
 
Discussion and Conclusion ............................................................653.1.6.
 
Acknowledgements ........................................................................68
4.
 
Murine Tumor Diffusion and
 p
O
2
Experiments ............................ 69
4.1.
 
On the Correlation Between the Water Diffusion Coefficient and OxygenTension in RIF-1 Tumors ...........................................................................704.1.1.
 
Abstract ..........................................................................................714.1.2.
 
Introduction ....................................................................................724.1.3.
 
Background ....................................................................................754.1.4.
 
Methods..........................................................................................764.1.5.
 
Results ............................................................................................814.1.6.
 
Discussion ......................................................................................884.1.7.
 
Acknowledgements ........................................................................96
5.
 
Yeast Experiments............................................................................. 98
5.1.
 
Deconvolution of Restriction Effects on Compartmental Diffusion UsingCombined Relaxometric and Diffusimetric NMR .....................................985.1.1.
 
Abstract ..........................................................................................985.1.2.
 
Introduction ....................................................................................995.1.3.
 
Theory ..........................................................................................1025.1.4.
 
Methods........................................................................................1085.1.4.1.Yeast Preparation .............................................................1085.1.4.2.NMR Experiments ...........................................................1095.1.4.3.Data Analysis ...................................................................1115.1.5.
 
Results ..........................................................................................1135.1.5.1.[Gd-DTPA] and Relaxographic Peak Separation ............113

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