Educational Psychology Re
iew, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2000
Lazy, Dumb, or Industrious: When StereotypesConvey Attribution Information in the Classroom
edinAmeri-can schools. This paper examines the role that stereotypes play in imposingobstacles to success for stigmatized children inside and outside of the class-room. Stereotypes con
ey explanatory information about groups—such asblacks are lazy, girls are bad at math, and so forth—that may be used asattributions for performance by adults as well as the children themsel
es.This paper presents a model that brings to light the underlying attributional structuresofallstereotypes.Eachoftheseattributionalsignatureshasspeciﬁceffects on judgments of responsibility and deser
ingness, help gi
ing or pun-ishment,self-esteemandmoti
enperformanceinsideandoutsideof the classroom. Through recognizing that stereotypes are
ehicles for attri-butional judgments, educators are better able to anticipate the effects that stereotypes may ha
e on students and take measures to counteract or dimin-ish them.
stereotypes; attributions; causal judgments; discrimination; stigmatizedstudents; attributions and achievement.
Despite decades of reform efforts, academic underachievement in mi-nority groups remains a challenge for American public schools and universi-ties. African Americans and Latinos are more likely to have lower GPAs,receive lower scores on standardized tests, and are more likely to drop out
Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.
Correspondence should be directed to Christine Reyna, Department of Psychology, UCLA,1282A Franz Hall, Box 951563, Los Angeles, California 90095-1563; e-mail: email@example.com
2000 Plenum Publishing Corporation