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The Cannabis Market-UNDOC

The Cannabis Market-UNDOC

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Published by 420leaks
United Nations document detailing the known cannabis market
United Nations document detailing the known cannabis market

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Published by: 420leaks on Jul 10, 2013
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5. the cannabis marke
175
5.1 Introduction
Cannabis remains the most widely produced and con-sumed illicit substance globally. The extent of the globalcannabis problem did not change significantly in 2009,though the consumption estimates show a wider range.This is the result of some increases in cannabis use in theUnited States of America, Africa, South and Central America and Asia, though consumption in Canada, western Europe and Oceania remained stable or showeda decline.In Europe, cannabis resin seizures are now at their lowestlevel for the last 10 years, whereas seizures of resin inNorth Africa have increased. The major cannabis resin-producing countries showed little evidence of changes inthe production levels. Global herbal cannabis seizureshave increased, principally due to increased seizures inthe United States of America and Mexico, where data onuse and cultivation also point to an increase in the avail-ability of cannabis herb in the market.There is more and more evidence that intensive expo-sure to cannabis products with high potency levelsincreases the risk of psychotic disorders (see text box).Some recent studies show that the average concentrationof the major psychoactive substance in cannabis prod-ucts (THC) is nowadays at higher levels than 10-15years ago; however, data for the past five years show a stable trend in some countries although the pattern isnot consistent for all products and all countries.From a market perspective, both cannabis producers andusers are apparently searching for more diversified prod-ucts which are not only determined by different THCconcentrations, but also by choices in ‘flavours.’ Thisdiversification is illustrated by the rise of synthetic can-nabinoids (‘spice’). In a short time, these products havebecome popular among young adults and teenagers inEurope and the United States. While there are someindications that these products might cause moredamage to the health of users, there is a need for morepharmacological and toxicological research in this area. At the same time, the large number of products being marketed as cannabinoids also challenges the controlmeasures taken by regulatory authorities in the MemberStates, the World Health Organization, the Interna-tional Narcotics Control Board and the Commission onNarcotic Drugs.
5.2 Consumption
UNODC estimates that in 2009, between 2.8% and4.5% of the world population aged 15-64, correspond-ing to between 125 and 203 million people, had usedcannabis at least once in the past year. Compared to theprevious year, the lower and upper levels of the estimateshave increased, thereby widening the range.
1
This is inpart due to greater uncertainty in the estimates as thereare limited recent or reliable prevalence data availablefrom many countries in Asia and Africa.
1 In 2008, the annual prevalence was estimated between 2.9% and4.3% of the population aged 15-64.
 
176
World Drug Report 2011
In 2009, among the Member States who provided expertperceptions on the trends of cannabis use in their coun-tries, nearly half of the countries reported a stable trend.This number was even higher in countries in the Amer-icas (67%). Less than half of Member States (44%),mainly in Africa, Asia and to a lesser extent Europe,reported that cannabis use had increased in their coun-tries. As an overall trend, over the past 10 years, anincreasing number of countries have been reporting stable trends for the use of cannabis.
Table 36: Annual prevalence and estimated number of cannabis users, by region, subregionand globally, 2009Fig. 141:Estimated number of cannabis usersby region, 2009
Source: UNODC.
Fig. 142: Annual prevalence of cannabis usersby region, 2009
Source: UNODC.050,000,000100,000,000150,000,000200,000,000250,000,000
   G   l  o   b  a   l   A   f  r   i  c  a   A  m  e  r   i  c  a  s   A  s   i  a   E  u  r  o  p  e   O  c  e  a  n   i  a
   L  o  w  e   /  u  p  p  e  r  r  a  n  g  e  u  s  e  r  s   (  m   i   l   l   i  o  n  s   )
02468101214
   G   l  o   b  a   l   A   f  r   i  c  a   A  m  e  r   i  c  a  s   A  s   i  a   E  u  r  o  p  e   O  c  e  a  n   i  a
   L  o  w  e  r   /  u  p  p  e  r  r  a  n  g  e  p  r  e  v  a   l  e  n  c  e   (   %   )
Region/subregionEstimatednumber of usersannually(lower)-Estimatednumber of usersannually(upper)Percent ofpopulationage 15-64(lower)-Percent ofpopulationage 15-64(upper)Africa
East AfricaNorth AfricaSouthern AfricaWest and Central Africa21,630,0002,340,0004,780,0003,130,00011,380,000-----59,140,0008,870,00010,620,0007,810,00031,840,0003.81.73.63.95.2-----10.46.58.09.814.6
Americas
CaribbeanCentral AmericaNorth AmericaSouth America40,950,000440,000550,00032,520,0007,410,000-----42,860,0002,060,000610,00032,520,0007,630,0006.71.62.210.72.9-----7.07.62.510.73.0
Asia
Central AsiaEast/South-East AsiaNear and Middle EastSouth Asia31,340,0001,950,0005,440,0006,060,00016,830,000-----67,970,0002,260,00024,160,00012,360,00028,110,0001.23.80.42.41.9-----2.54.41.64.83.1
Europe
East/South-East EuropeWest/Central Europe28,730,0005,980,00022,750,000---29,250,0006,380,00022,860,0005.22.67.1---5.32.67.1
Oceania
2,160,000-3,460,0009.3-14.8
Global124,810,000
-
202,680,0002.8
-
4.5
 
177
The cannabis market
Map 40:Prevalence of cannabis use, 2009 (or latest year available)Map 41:Expert perception of trends in the use of cannabis, 2009 (or latest year available)
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Large increaseSome increaseNo great changeSome decreaseLarge decreaseNo data provided
Trend
Data older than 2009
Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan.The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet beenagreed upon by the parties.
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% of population aged 15-64
> 8
6 - 82 - 50 - 1No data providedData older than 2005
Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Controlin Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan.The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet beenagreed upon by the parties.

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