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Achieving and Sustaining Open Defecation Free Communities: Learning from East Java

Achieving and Sustaining Open Defecation Free Communities: Learning from East Java

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written by Nilanjana Mukherjee with Amin Robiarto, Saputra, Efentrif and Djoko Wartonio, WSP Indonesia Action Research Report, March 2012
written by Nilanjana Mukherjee with Amin Robiarto, Saputra, Efentrif and Djoko Wartonio, WSP Indonesia Action Research Report, March 2012

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09/23/2013

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 Achieving and Sustaining Open Defecation FreeCommunities: Learning from East Java
Nilanjana Mukherjee with Amin Robiarto, Saputra, Effentrif, and Djoko WartonoMarch 2012
 
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By Nilanjana Mukherjee with Amin Robiarto, Saputra, Effentrif, and Djoko Wartono
Today, 2.6 billion people live without access to improved sanitation. Of these, 75 percent live inrural communities. To address this challenge, WSP is working with governments and localprivate sectors to build capacity and strengthen performance monitoring, policy, financing, andother components needed to develop and institutionalize large scale, sustainable ruralsanitation programs. With a focus on building a rigorous evidence base to support replication,WSP combines Community-Led Total Sanitation, behavior change communication, andsanitation marketing to generate sanitation demand and strengthen the supply of sanitationproducts and services, leading to improved health for people in rural areas. For moreinformation, please visit  www.wsp.org/scalingupsanitation.  This research report is one in a series of knowledge products designed to showcase project 
findings, assessments, and lessons learned through WSP’s Scaling Up Rural Sanitation
initiatives. This paper is conceived as a work in progress to encourage the exchange of ideasabout development issues. For more information please email Djoko Wartono at wsp@worldbank.org or visit  www.wsp.org. 
WSP is a multi-donor partnership created in 1978 and administered by the World Bank to support poor
people in obtaining affordable, safe, and sustainable access to water and sanitation services. WSP’s
donors include Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, the Bill & Melinda GatesFoundation, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, UnitedStates, and the World Bank.
WSP reports are published to communicate the results of WSP’s wo
rk to the development community.Some sources cited may be informal documents that are not readily available.The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed herein are entirely those of the author andshould not be attributed to the World Bank or its affiliated organizations, or to members of the Board of Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The map was produced by the Map Design Unit of the World Bank. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map inthis work do not imply any judgment on the part of the World Bank Group concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The material in this publication is copyrighted. Requests for permission to reproduce portions of it should be sent to wsp@worldbank.org.WSP encourages the dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission promptly. For more information, please visit  www.wsp.org.  © 2012 Water and Sanitation Program
 
 
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Contents
 Acknowledgements
.................................................................................................................................................................... 5
  Abbreviations and Acronyms
............................................................................................................................................... 6
 Executive Summary
................................................................................................................................................................... 8
 I. Introduction
................................................................................................................................................................... 17
 II. Methodology
 
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
23
III. Similarities and Differences Between ODF and NOT ODF Communities
...................................... 28
IV. Understanding Open Defecators and Sharers
............................................................................................... 37
 V. Access Gained and ODF: What is Achieved and Sustained?
.................................................................. 50
 VI. Factors Influencing Demand Generation and Sustainable Behavior Change
…………
............. 57
 VII. What People Have Invested in and Why
.......................................................................................................... 78
 VIII. Institutional Roles for Rural Sanitation Improvement 
.......................................................................... 97
 VIII. Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations
................................................................................109
 References
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
.
121
  Annexes
 Basic Concepts and Definitions
……………
122Recommended Implementation Sequence in New Province or Small Country
……
107
 Figures
1: Percentage of Triggered Communities Achieving ODF
……
.152: Total umber Persons Gaining Access to Improved Sanitation During Implementation in East Java
16
 
3: Trend of ODF Achievement During TSSM Implementation in East Java
16
 
4: Action Research Sites in 20 Districts in East Java
.. 20
 
5: Sample Distribution by Community Category and Topography
266: Sample Distribution by Community Category and Soil Type
……
267: Sample Distribution by Community Category and Distance to Sanitation Supplies
……
27
 
8: Sample Distribution by Community Category and Proximity to Water Bodies
………
279: Percentage Increase in HH Access to Improved Sanitation in FourTypes of Communities in TwentyDistricts
……
3810: Total Persons Who Gained Access to Improved Sanitation in Four Types of Communities in TwentyDistricts
3911: Process History Comparison (Triggering)
………
4312: Process History Comparison (Post Triggering)
……
4513: What Helped Collective Behaviour Change
Villagers Opinions
……..…
5014: What Hindered Collective Behaviour Change
—Villagers’ Opinions……..……
5215: Sanitation Ladder Derived from 574 Latrines Observed in 80 Communities... 58a16: Sanitation Ladder of Facilities observed in 80 Communties, Pictorially
………58b
 17: Sanitation Solutions Typically Chosen by Communities to Become ODF
…….
.6218: Additional Facilities in 574 Latrines Observed in ODF and Not ODFCommunities
………..………..………..…………..………..………..….....
......................................6419: Sources of Information, Advice, and Services for Sanitation Improvements
….65
 20: TSSM Informed Choice Catalogue Options
………..………..………..………………66
 
Tables
1: Extent of Open Defecation Practiced
……………………………………………………
292: Open Defecation Practice by Welfare Category
………..………..………..……………30
 3: Sites Used for Open Defecation as Reported by Open Defecators
..………..………30
 

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