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Answers to Population Change 30 Questions You Should Be Able to Answer Without Thinking

Answers to Population Change 30 Questions You Should Be Able to Answer Without Thinking

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Published by reservoirgeogs
Help to answer the 30 imporatnt questions I set you early on in the Spring Term - worth a close look
Help to answer the 30 imporatnt questions I set you early on in the Spring Term - worth a close look

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Published by: reservoirgeogs on May 13, 2009
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Population Change Quiz – here are my answers!!!!
1)What are meant by the terms birth rate and fertility rate? And why is infant mortality agood indicator of a country’s level of development?
Birth rate is the number of live births per 100 populationFertility rate is the number of live births per 1000 women between the ages of 15 and 49 ORthe average number of children each woman in the population would bear.
2)Give three reasons why a national census is useful to a country.
Population planning – it can be the only way to paint a true picture of population includingmigrationGovernment Planning – to maximize the efficiency of resource allocation e.g. health andeducationFuture Revenues and Costs – what are future tax revenues and social costs going to be
3)Explain how traditions and changes in education can affect birth rates.
Some religions/cultures perceive large families as a status symbolMany societies place a much greater emphasis on having a male heirEducation can improve a woman’s ability to choose; this may be a choice to use availablecontraception, a decision to remain in full time education, to enter into a paid profession.All these choices will affect birth rates.
4)What is the under “2.1 club”?
2.1 refers to the fertility rate of 2.1 which is seen as the “replacement rate” where apopulation in an MEDC is maintained. According to the UN there will be 88 MEDC’s in the clubby 2016
5)Suggest how each of a) economic development and b) disease influences death rates.
Economic development increases the resource wealth of a country. More efficient use of itsown resources will lead to greater wealth generation. Greater wealth within the country shouldgive its population greater access to medical supplies e.g. vaccines but also it should improvethings such as education levels and sanitation which all will assist in reducing death rates.Disease rates vary. Any increase in disease will lead to an increase in death rates. Particularlyif the country is impoverished and medical supplies are limited. Many countries have
persistently high incidences of disease (particular those borne in water) and this one factoralone accounts for much of the high death rates seen there.
6)Draw an annotated diagram of the Demographic Transition model.
Stage 1Stage 2Stage 3Stage 4Stage 5High FluctuatingEarly ExpandingLate ExpandingLow Fluctuatingdecline
High BR and DRFalling DR High BRFalling BR Dr stillLowerLow BR and DRLow Dr falling BR
Can you draw the BR, DR and total population lines? Why do countries move through thestages?
7)Give three reasons why the DTM may be useful and three reasons why its use may be oflimited value.
PositivesNegativesBasic starting point for demographic studiesThe original model did not include a fifthstage (let alone a six / seventhUniversal concept all countries can be placedsomewhereBased on evidence from Europe (Eurocentric)No time scaleDoes not include the role of governmentplanningFacilitates asy comparison between nationsMigration is not accounted for (think impacton recent immigration on UK birth rate)
8)Distinguish between forced and voluntary migration.
According to the text book: “Forced migration is where a migrant moves because ofcircumstances …….and a voluntary migrant makes the decision to move”. I would go on to saythat a forced migrant may been facing a real of perceived threat to their health or wellbeing(war, famine, intolerance, injustice, forced resettlement)
9)Explain why the numbers of refugees and asylum seekers have increased in recent years.
Volatile situations in certain areas of the world e.g. Iraq and AfghanistanIncreased environmental pressures e.g. the Sahel or Lake ChadPossibly as a response to an increase in legal restrictions on international migration.NB international migration has increased as a whole. Take care not to confuse Asylum Seekerswith International Migrants as a whole. Pages 158 to 161 in your Core text
10)Define the term “population structure.”
The composition of a population according to age groups and gender. It is shown by a populationpyramid
Population Change Quiz – here are my answers!!!!
1)Give three characteristics of the UK population structure.
Large proportion of people over 80 – wider apexLow motality rates - relatively straight sides (column shaped with some bulges)Baby Boom in their late 30’s – high birth rates in 1960’s and 70’sAlso slight bulge showing post war baby boomTapering at the base showing declining birth rates
2)Identify three trends in the UK population structure between now and 2050.
Population projections show that by 2021 the number of people aged over 80 will reach 3 million(5%), whilst the number of those under 16 will fall.
Outline three challenges faced by a country with an aging population.
Increasing costs associated (remember cost savings in young care)e.g. health costs (bed blocking, rehabilitation, prescription costs) social coast (shelteredhousing) welfare costs (pensions, transport, other benefits, re-training)All this at a time when the size of tax paying workforce (and therefore revenues) may beshrinking in proportion to the aging population
Outline three challenges faced by a country with a youthful population.
Costs associated with childbirth and post natal care, vaccinations, education and nurseryplaces. The future demand for job creation and housing.
5)How does outward migration affect the population of an area?
Costs can be classified as social, economic. Particular example of migration may have differenteffects both benefits and costs Consult pages 172 to 173 of your core text and be aware ofthe costs and benefits of your migration case studies
6)How does inward migration affect the population of an area?
See above
7)What have been the impacts of economic migration on an area you have studied?
Write about Poland to UK, alternatively Mexico to USA or Asia to Dubai. Remember to writeabout both the source and destination countries
Define both underpopulation and overpopulation.
Underpopulation is where the number of people living in an area is insufficient to allow the mostefficient use of resources with a given level of technology. Characterised by high wages, lowunemployment. Over population is the opposite.Remember optimum population is where the GDP per capita is maximized BUT it is a dynamicconcept – this means that both the available resources and level of technology is constantlychanging.

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