and its evolution — more especially its " in-creasing purpose " — have developed new-ideals, and created types of character pre-viously unknown, these ideals and typesbecome historic witness-bearers to a fact of immeasurable value to the future of the world.This litrie book is issued as a partialanswer to the question, "What are thedistinctive features of the Christian Ethic, asdistinguished from the other moral systemsof the world?" It must be noted at theoutset, however, that it is a total mistake todivide the philosophy, or the science, of Ethicsinto two sharply contrasted sections — the onedealing with the natural, and the other withthe supernatural — or the one Pagan, and theother Christian. If there be a fundamentalchasm, or " great gulf fixed," between thesetwo — if, in other words, the Christian super-seded the natural Ethic of the world — thediscussion of their mutual relations wouldend, much in the same way as a province isPreface. ixannexed by a victorious army. Throughoutthe Middle Ages the chasm between atureand the Supernatural was widened in an un-natural manner ; and, during that remarkableperiod in the development of the human mind,Ethics — while subordinated to Theology — was manacled by artificial fetters. If, how-ever, one aim of the Christian religion be therestoration of harmony between ature andthe Supernatural, it will be seen that themediaeval tendency was not only unscientific,but was at the same time retrograde.