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Brendemoen Turkish Language Reform

Brendemoen Turkish Language Reform

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Published by Sam1
Bernt Brendemoen, "The Turkish Language Reform and Language Policy in Turkey", in G. Hazai, ed., Handbuch der Tuerkischen Sprachwissenschaft, teil 1, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1990.
Bernt Brendemoen, "The Turkish Language Reform and Language Policy in Turkey", in G. Hazai, ed., Handbuch der Tuerkischen Sprachwissenschaft, teil 1, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1990.

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-$
ζ
,.
...
HANDBUCHDER
TORKISCHENSPRACHWISSENSCHAFT
Τ E I L
Ι
H E R λ υ O O E O E B E N
V Ο Ν
G Υ δ R G Υ
Η Α Ζ Α Ι
1990
σ π σ
HARRASSOWITZ.WIESBADEN
 
\
Τ Η Ε
TURKISH
LANGUAGE
REFORM
Α Ν Ο
LANGUAGE
POLICY
Ι Ν
Τ U R K E Y
by
B E R N Τ
BRENDEMOEN
Ι
Comparedwilh
AIaIurk's
otherreformsthealphabel
and
l a π g u a g e
reformsaffecledcvcry
I ί l c r a l e
Turkishcitizcn
ί π
amoredirect,personalandfundamentalway.
Ν ο ι
ο π l Υ
wasa
nCw
alphabet
ι ο
beadopted:withthemore
Ο Γ
Icssrigorousabolishmcnl
ofwords
of
Ar.tbicandPersian
ο ι ί Β ί π
andIheirreplacementbyknown
ο ι
unknownTurkish-
Ο Γ
aIIegedlyTurkish-words,thespeakersofthelanguagewcrcforeed
10
changetheirway
of
expressingthemselves.Thisprocessinevitably:.rcsulted
ί π
Ihcadoplion
of
amorereflectedattitudetowardsIheir
l a π g u a g e .
AndIhcmorceducatedthespeakerwas.Ihemorefundamentalthechangehad
Ι ο
be.SineeIhercform,if
ί ι
was
Ι ο
becarried
ο υ Ι
efficiently,thuswouldaffeclevery
~ i l c r a t e
speakerpcrsonaIIy,thenecessity,exlentandmethods
of
thereformhavebccndiscussed
f c r ν c n t l y
frombothscientificandunscientificpoints
of
viewfrom
ihc
limc
ί l
wasfirstannounced
υ π ι ί l
loday.
Ι
do
π ο l
intend,
and
do
π ο Ι
havethepossibility,
ι ο
discussherethevastlitcraturewrittcnabouIIhc
l a π g u a g e
reform.Because
ofthe
fundamentalchangesthereform
i m p l ί c s ,
ί l
isbut
π ο Ι υ Γ Ο \
thata
ρ ο ι Ι
of
the"argumentswhichhavebeenputforthisbased
ο π
senlimenlal
and
arbitrarypoinls
of
viewratherthan
ο π
scienlificfoundations.However,Iheviews
and
argumentsIhese"senIimental"
p u b l ί c a t i o n s
prcscnl
wiII
bediscussed
Ι ο
Iheextenttheyarerelevant
ι ο
theunderstanding
of
theclemcntsoflhcreform.
Α ι
thelanguagereformisasubjecl
ο π
whichthesamethingshavcbccnsaidandthesameargumentshavebeenusedagreatnumber
of
times,\
wiII
cspcciaIIyemphasizethepoints
ο π
whichtheliteratureholdsviewsdifferingfromthestandardarguments.
Ι
alsointend
ι ο
dealprimari\ywiththeworkspublishedaftertheSccondWorldWar.
Α
bibliography
of
Ihe
I ί t e r a t u r e
dealingwiththelanguagereformhas
sIiII
ι ο
bepublished.Goodbibliographicalinformationisfound
ί π
Η λ Ζ λ Ι
1978,espcciaIIy
105-107,
and
ί π
seclion
Β Ρ
of
Ihecurrent
Turk%gi.vcherAn=eiger.
For
o\derIilcraturc
sec
Η λ Ζ λ Ι
1971,where
257-258
arcespcciaIIyuseful.Thebibliographyprcsented
ο l
theend
of
this
a r ι i c l e
is
ί π
π ο
wayintended
Ι ο
becomplete.!ThcDevelopment
"f
theRcr"rmup
t<\
Ι
9 Κ Ο
2,1
l ι
maybeuseful
ι ο
recapitulatebrieflythemainevents
ί π
thereformmovemenlbeforeweproceed
ι ο
discussingtheliteraturewhichdeaIswiththissubject.454AIlhoughIhc
seed
oflhc
languagcreformwassown
ί π
Ihc
Tanz/mat
pcriod,andthcattempts
Ι Ο
bringIhcwrittcnIanguagccloser
ι ο
IhcspokcnidiomwcrcfrcquentduringIhefirstdecades
ofthis
eentury,
ί ι
did
σ ο ι
becomccvidcnl
υ π ι ί Ι
Ihealphabelreformwaspromulgaledby
AIDturk
ί π
1928Ihalaprofound
l a π g u a g c
reformwasalsoinevitable.
[ π
IhesamewayasTurkishwordshadbccnbasicaIIyforcign
10
Iheprinciples
of
Arabicscripl,Arabic
and
PcrsianwordsnowbecamcparliaIIy
u n i n l e I l ί g i b l e
whenwrittenwilhLalinIcllers,
Ο π ο
yearlaler,whenIheleaching
of
ArabicandPersianasschooIsubjeclswasabolished,Ihe
door
10
IheEaslwasirrevocablyclosed.
υ π ι ί l
Ihcn,knowIedge
of
Arabic
and
Persianhadbccnaproductiveelemcnl
ί π
anywcII-cducatedspcakcr'slanguagc.
Ataturk's
aim
- I ί k e
Ihal
o f p r o ι a g o n i s l s
bcforchimsuchas
Ζ ί Υ α
Goka/p-
was
10
crealealanguagewhichevcrybodycouldundersland,bynalionalizing
ί ι ,
i.
e."Iiberaling"
ί l
fromilsforeignelcmenls."Olkcsini,yiiksek
i s l i k l i ί l ί n i
korumasInIbiIenTiirkmiIIeli,
d i l ί n i
deyabanc\diIIer
boyunduruiundan
k u r ι a r m a l I d ι r , "
hesaid
ί π
aspcech
d e l ί v e r e d
ί π
1930.HealsowanlcdIheTurkishIanguage
10
allainIhehonourablc
Ρ O S i l i O n
ί l
d c s e r ν c d
amongIhe
~ u / I u r s p r a c h e n
of
Ihcworld.TheprogramforhowIhescaimswerc
10
bercachcd
and
Ihcinslitulionalform
10
rcalize
ί l
wcre
π ο l
eslablished
υ π ι ί l 1 9 3 2 ,
when
TurkDi/iTeIkikCemiyeIi(from
1934
TurkDi/i
A r a ~ I ι r m a
Kurumu,
from1936
TurkDi/Kurumu,
abbrevialcdas
Τ Ο Κ )
wasfounded.
Ι "
order
10
findTurkishreplaeemcnlsforIhcwords
of
ArabicandPersianorigin,committeeswcrceslabIished
Ι ο
coIIeclwordsfromAnaloliandialeclsunknown
ί π
standardTurkish.
Α ι
Ihesametime,oldOttomanIcxlswerescarchedforTurkishwords
π ο
longerused
ί π
thcstandardvcmacuiar,
and
d ί c ι ί ο π a ή c s ( l ί k e
Radloff's)
of
olherlanguagcsbcIonging
10
IhevaslTurkicfamily,werescrulinizcd.Evenif
Α
taturk
had
π ο l
alreadyrcgardcd
ί l
asamajor
ρ ο ί
π Ι
alIhcbeginning,Ihereplacement
of
wordsfromEuropeanlanguagesbypureTurkishwordsalsobecameone
of
Iheitems
ο π
TDK's
program.Thcresult
of
thisintensiveworkwas
Osman/tcadanTurkfeyeSoz
K a r ~ I / I k / a r ι
TaramaDergisi
(1934),whichindeedmarksthepcak
of
Turkishpurism.
Jt
hadapproximateIy7000entricsandfourlimcsasmany
"Turkish"
wordsassubslitules.Becausemany
of
Ihcsuggestcdsubslitulcswercfcll
10
bccompIcleIyslrangc
and
incomprehensiblc,andoftcnmorcIhanone(somclimesIcn
ο ι
morc)substitulewassuggcsledforeachOttomanword,Ihcdiclionaryhad
π ο
suceess,and
Α
taturk
himsclfwasgreally
d i s a p ρ o i n l c d .
Thcrelrealwasdone
ί π
amoslremarkableway:
[ π
Ihe
S Ρ ή π g
of
1935areorganiseddictionarycommittecpublishcd
o.,man/tcadan
Τ u r k ς e y e
Cep
Κ ι / α ν α Ζ α
and
Τ u r k ς e d e n
o.,man/I("Qya('ep
Κ ι / α ν α Ζ α .
Hcrc,many
of
thccrrorsundambiguities
ofthe
TaranID
Dergi.'i
werecorrected,but
ο l
Ihcsamclimeabout16%
of
Ihe"puristic"suggeslionswerewords
of
foreign
Ο Γ ί Β ί π ,
sometimesaItered
Ι ο
conformwithTurkishphonologicaIrules,prescnlcdwithIhc
p υ z z l ί Π B
remark
Τ . Κ δ
-
" T ί i r k
kOkiindcn".
Τ Ο Κ
expressedIheastonishingviewthat
ί l
hadfound455
 
rc&sons
ι ο
beIievethatthesewordshadactual1ybeenborrowedbyforeign
l a n g u a g ~
fromTurkishroots,andthattherefore
υ ο
objectioncouldbemade
ι Ρ ί η ι ι
' ' ι a k ί n g
themback"
and
usingthem
ί η
modernTurkish.Fewmonths
Ι θ Ι Ο Τ , .
theinfamous
G U n e ~ - D ί I
Teo,isi
waspromuIgated.According10thisamazingtheory,language-
ί η
ί ι .
mostprimitiveform-
ί .
based
ο η
the
soundsand
sylIablesexpressedbyman
ί η
primevaltimes,whenhefirst
( ο Ι ι
theneed
Ι ο
namethe
o b j e c ι s
ί η
hissurroundings
and
theirqualities.
Β Υ
comparingTurkishwithmore
ο τ
lessobscurelanguageslike
S υ m e ή a η ,
Elamite,andBasque,
and
bymeans
of
obscureetymoIogizations
and
avividimagination,
ί ι
was
" ρ τ ο ν ω "
that
T u r l ι i s h
was
ι Μ
mother
of
al1languages
of
theworld,
just
as
ί ι
hadaIreadybeenprovedthatTurkishciviIization
of
CentralAsiawastheorigin
of
al1
civilizations...NachderProklamationder
S ο n n e n S Ρ r a c h ι h e ο ή e
warenweitereEinzel,untersu
c h u n ι e n '
ϋ b e r f ι i i s s ί g
geworden,dajeglichesSprachmaterial,das
ο ί η
gebildeter
Τ ϋ Γ Ι ι ο
benotigte,ohneweiteresebensoturksprachlichwurde,wiedieGegenstande
Ί ; υ
Goldwurden,die
der
KonigMidas
b e r ϋ h r Ι e . "
(STEUERWALD
1963,30.)
Ι η
thiswaythefirststageofTurkishlanguagereformreachedaconclusionwhich,
Ί ι Ι
firstgIance,mayseem
Ι ο
besomewhat
u n s u c c e s s f u ι .
However,
ί ι
ί .
important
η ο Ι
10forgetthatpeople'sconsienceabouttheirmothertonguehadbeen-ifsomewhatbrutal1y-awakened,
and
that
ο ν ο η
themost
( ο τ ν ο η Ι
ο ρ ρ ο η ο η ι .
of
theway
ί η
whichthereformwascarriedout,wereforced
Ι ο
moderatetheiruse
of
Ottomanisms
ί η
writing
ί η
order
ι ο
beacceptedbytheirreaders.
1.1
Afterthedeath
of
Atatu,k.
thelanguagereformcontinuedundertheaegis
of
/mwt
/nonu.
asifthe
G u n e ~ - D ; I
Teo,;s;
had
η ο ν ο τ
beenputforth.Theworkconsistednowmainly
ί η
attempts
ι ο
makepeopleadoptthenewwordsalready
s u g ι e s t e d
by
Τ Ο Κ ,
and
ί η
te,im
( a I t ~ m a I a r ι -
attempts
Ι ο
find
( J Ζ ι u , k ς e
repIacementsfortechnicalandothertermsofforeignoriginused
. ί η
education.However,
ί η
1940,
Τ Ο Κ
"re-affirmedthatthoseforeignwordswhichbyconstantusehadpenetrated
ί η ι ο
popularspeechmight,
ο η
certainconditions,beregardedasnaturalizedcitizens
of
theTurkishlanguage."
(HEYD
1954,36.)Nevertheless,
ί η
1942,thecrownjeweI
of
theterminologydictionariespublishedby
Τ Ο Κ ,
FeIs./.
".
G , α m ι ! '
TerimIe,;
waspublished,andbecamesubject
ι ο
ν Ο Γ Υ
hardcriticismfor
ί ι .
extremeIypuristic
l ί n e .
This
and
similarendeavoursof
Τ Ο Κ ,
especiallythe''Iranslation''
of
the
τ . ~ k ί Ι ά ι - ι
& ο . , ί Υ '
Kanunu
ί η ι ο
apuristic,butsomewhat
inconsistcnt.
Λ π α Υ α . \ ' α
(1945),
combinedwiththe
~ n n o u n c c m c n t
of
grcu.tcrpoliticaI
freedom,Ied
Ι ο
theforming
of
θ η
organizedopposition
Ι ο
Τ Ο Κ
andtheofficialIanguagepolicy.
Muallim
Β ί , Ι ί κ ί
and
Hu,
FikirleriYuymu
C ' c m ί Υ Ι ' ι ί
nowopenly
CIIpressed
theirprofounddisagreementwiIh
Τ Ο Κ
ο η
almost
al1
ρ ο ί η ι .
of
themethods
and
theprogram
of
theorganization.
Τ Ο Κ
and
thegovernmentwereforced
Ι ο
fol1ow
amoremoderate
I i η ο ,
and
thus
Η .
C.
YaII·tn.
whowasknownforhisrathermoderateviews
ο η
languagematters,waseIectedpresident
of
Τ Ο Κ ' .
sixthcongress
ί η
Ι 9 4 9 .
456WhenIheOemocraticParty
Ι ο ο Ι ο ν Ο Γ
ί η
1950,
Τ Ο Κ
l 0 s Ι
ί ι .
officialstaIus.
υ η ι ί l
Ihenthe
Ο Γ μ η ί Ζ θ ι ί ο η
hadreceived46
%
of
ί ι .
incomefromthegovemmentand30
%
asa
testamentaryendowmentmadeby
Ataru.k.
Thegovernmentnowdecided
Ι ο
cutoff
ί ι .
subvenIion.
Jt
musthavebeenagreatdefeatforthemembers
ofTOK
ι ο
seethe
Ι ο χ Ι
of
their
Anayasa
beingaboIishedandtheold
Ι ο χ Ι
of
Ι 9 2 4
beingreintroducedbythe
ν ο ι ε
of
θ η
overwhelming
m a j ο ή Ι Υ
ί η
Parliament
ί η
1952.Quiteanumber
of
themostprominentfigures
ί η
Τ Ο Κ
hadunIiIthe1950.beenpeopIewithoutanyspecialquaIificationsfordealingwithIinguistics.Nowuniversityprofessors
and
writerswereeIectedmembers
Ι ο
agreater
ο Χ Ι ο η ι ,
andtheorganizationrathergottheappearance
of
anacademy,devotingitselfmore
ι ο
editingandpublishingoldtexts,arranging
l ί n g u ί s Ι ί c
conferencesetc.Thedemand
of
α r ι
diI
wasreplacedby
sadedil.
AIreadybefore1950
ο η ο
couIddiscernthetendenciesthathaveled
ι ο
the
s i Ι U a t i o n
today:
DiI
d ά v ά s /
hasgradual1ydeveloped
ί η ι ο
a
ρ α , ι ί
d ά v ά s ι .
FromahistoricaI
ρ ο ί η ι
of
view
ί ι
mustbepointed
out
thatthe
l a n g υ a g e
probIemhaswithoutdoubtbeen
ο η ο
of
thefactorsthatled
Ι ο
theforming
of
apoliticalopposition
ί η
the
19405.
WhentheMenderes
ι ' e g i m e
came
Ι Ο
anend
ί η
1960,
and
" Μ ί Ι Ι ί
Β ί Γ l ί Ι
Yonetimi"came
Ι Ο
power,thework
of
Τ Ο Κ
madegreatprogressagain.
Α η
evidenceforthis
ί .
the
A n a y α s a
of
1961,whichcontainsagreatnumber
of
neologisms,
ο ν ο η
if
ί ι ί .
farmore
c o n s e r ν a t i v e
thanthe
C o n s t i ι u t i o n
of
1945.
Ι η
thisperiodofficialdirectiveswereissued,recommendingtheuse
of
( j Ζ Ι U , k ς .
asofficiaIadministrationlanguage.(SimiIardirectiveswereissuedlater
ο η
severaIoccasionswhen
Cumhu,i}'etHaIkPa,tisi
was
ί η
power.)
Ι ι
is,however,typicaI
ofthe
situationthat
ί η
1967,after
A d α Ι o Ι
P α , ι ί s ί
had
Ι θ Ι ι ο η
ο ν Ο Γ ,
abiIlproposingthepuristicIanguage
of
the
C o n s t i Ι U t i o n
astheonlylegalIanguage
η ο Ι ο η l Υ
ί η
publicadministration,butaIso
ί η
''other
connectionswhichcouldhave
θ Ω
effect
ο η
society",was
η ο ν Ο Γ
put
Ι ο
a
ν ο Ι ο
ί η
Parliament.WithouImaking
ι ο ο
grossageneralization,
ο η ο
cansaythatup
ι ο
1980,attempts
of
continuedpurificationhavebeensuccessfullyperformedmostlywhen
Cumhu-
, ί Υ ' Ι
HaIkPa,tIsI
waS
ί η
power,but
η ο ι
atothertimes.
DiIdev,imi
wasinstigatedby
Α
lu/U,k.
and
ο ν ο η
if
θ Ι Ι
official
Ρ ο l i ' ι ί c a l
partiesofficiaIlyfollowhispath,theIanguagequestion
ί ο
ο η ο
ofthe
ρ ο ί η ι .
wherethe
ή g h ι
wing
Ρ θ τ ι ί ο .
wereopposedto
CHP.
which
ί η
thismatter,as
ί η
manyothers,regardediIseIfasthe
ο η l Υ
truefoIlower
of
Alatu,k.
andasatrue
d.v,imci
party,
Α Ι
l e a s Ι
when
ί ι
came
Ι ο
Ihe
devrinI/er
of
AIaturk.
AdaI.,
Ρ α , ι ί . < ί
wasmostlyagainstacontinuedreform,
and
Μ ί Ι Ι ί
S e I ά m e t
Ρ α , ι ; " ;
ο ν ο η
( ί η
periods)pronouncedthat
ί ι
wanted
Ι ο
undothealphabetreform.
C ι Z D F . M I R
describesthe
l a η g u a g e
s i ι u a t i o n
of
1975,whenmostlytheright-wing'
Μ ί l l i
Ceph."
was
ί η
power,
ί η
thefollowingway:
" α ~ o η
Υ Ι I
(1974,whentheEcevitgovernmentwas
ί η
poweruntilthe
a u ι u m n )
bakanlIkIarcagenelgeler
y a Y I m l a n m I ~ ,
y a z I ~ m a l a r
da
Τ ϋ Γ Ι ι ς Ο Υ Ο
saygIgosterilmesi
i s t e n m i ~ t i .
Bugenegeler
Υ ϋ Γ ϋ Ι ι l ϋ Ι ι Ι ο ηk a l d t r ι l a r a k
δ ΖΤ ϋ r k ς e c ί Ι ί Α ί nb ι r a k I l m a s I ,
'millidil'
i 1 ο
u y u ~ m a y a n
s δ Ζ c ϋ k Ι e r ί n
kullantlmamast457

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