23Smoothly evolving CDMA to LTE
In spite o the rapid development o data services, voice services will continueto be a major source o revenue or CDMA operators in the long-term, thoughCDMA networks will continue to expand.he competition o HSPA/WiMAX technologies and the rapid growth o data services pressure existing network capacity, which has spurred CDMA operators tostep up their LE evolution plans. heaccelerated process o transiting to LE will also give rise to a stage in whichCDMA and LE networks coexist.KDDI recently unveiled itsdevelopment strategy in which anLE network will be deployed on theexisting CDMA network to allow theinteroperation o the two. Verizon’sstrategy has also made it clear that itsCDMA network, which was upgraded in2007, will continue to operate in tandem with LE.Tis is necessary in part because o thestep-by-step nature o LE deployment;LE will initially cover high-traicareas to provide large-capacity mobilebroadband access services beore gradually being extended to ull coverage in phases.During the initial stage, CDMA networks will continue to carry low- and medium-rate mobile broadband services over a broader area. his three-dimensionalservice approach enables operators toexibly ormulate their operation strategiesand provide diverse services. SprintNextel’s brand, “Sprint 4G”, eaturesCDMA/WiMAX coexistence as a typicalexample o a three-dimensional CDMA +OFDMA (LE/WiMAX) network. Underthis brand, Sprint Nextel has rolled outCDMA/WiMAX dual-mode handsets,and plans to enhance CDMA/WiMAX network interoperability and switchover tomaximize the overall coverage and capacity strength o the three-dimensional network.
Two challenges foroperators
During CDMA and LE coexistenceand CDMA-to-LE evolution, operatorsace two challenges: 1) adequately protecting legacy investments during evolution while upgrading the existing
The evolutionary path to LTE
temming rom the rapid growtho mobile data services, operatorsnow ace the twin challenges o a drastic increase in data traicdemands and the need to reduce costs. omeet these diculties and boost revenuesrom mobile data services, operators arecurrently planning to upgrade and evolvetheir existing mobile networks. At one point, the CDMA industry washesitant about whether to choose LE orUMB to lead uture evolution. During thedevelopment process o the two competing technologies, leading CDMA operatorssuch as Verizon (USA), KDDI (Japan),SK elecom (Korea), and KF (Korea)announced their alignment to LE. As a result, the LE industry chain is destinedto rapidly mature and become moresophisticated than UMB. In November2008, Qualcomm announced that ithad abandoned UMB, by which time it was apparent that CDMA was destinedto evolve to LE. Wireless broadbandtechnologies such as HSPA and WiMAX were also adding pressure on CDMA operators to accelerate the evolutionary pace o CDMA to LE.High throughput, low delays, and low costs are the three basic requirementsor 4G network development, whichLE is destined to realize. Firstly, LEadopts the most advanced technologiessuch as OFDMA, SC-OFDMA, andMIMO, to achieve high throughput, with the minimum uplink and downlink throughput objectives being 100Mbps and50Mbps respectively. Secondly, the latnetwork architecture o LE can efectively reduce delays to less than 5ms on theservice layer and 100ms on the controllayer. Finally, the All-IP architecture,exible spectrum utilization strategy, andSON technology oer LE a great costadvantage.Several CDMA operators such as KDDIand Verizon are preparing to introduceLE.
CDMA and LTE co-existence
CDMA network; 2) guaranteeing QoEto avoid subscriber churn during network evolution.he irst challenge requires a uniiedplatorm solution that embodies CDMA and LE to ensure smooth evolution andully protect existing investment. Sharing the hardware platorm between the two isprerequisite or smoothly upgrading andevolving rom CDMA to LE.CDMA and LE are undamentally two dierent wireless technologies, anduniying them in terms o hardwareimposes rigorous technical requirementson equipment vendors. Uniied platormdevelopment represents a new approach todeveloping existing wireless technologiessuch as GSM, UMS, CDMA, and WiMAX. I equipment vendors possessextensive experience in the uniiedplatorm technology eld and apply it toCDMA-to-LE evolution, they are betterplaced to design and deliver solutionsor smoothly upgrading and evolving toLE. In addition to platorm maturity, theperormance o CDMA and especially LEacross the uniied platorm is a priority issue. Equipment vendors must keep activein LE research investment and remain atthe oreront o LE R&D in the industry.Tis is the only way or them to ensure theperormance o the co-platorm based LEsolution as well as smooth upgrade andevolution rom CDMA to LE. Vendors’E2E capabilities maximize equipment-sharing in the CDMA-to-LE solution,enhance CDMA-to-LE evolutionsmoothness, and protect operators’investments.he second challenge requires thesolution to augment CDMA/LEinteroperability and ensure that subscriberscan seamlessly switch between CDMA and LE networks. his poses a greaterchallenge to the overall strength andcapability o solution providers. CDMA is a standard specied by 3GPP2 and LEby 3GPP; solution providers can deliver a seamless CDMA/LE evolution solutiononly by increasing long-term investmentin both the 3GPP and 3GPP2 camps andby ully understanding their protocols andarchitectures.Sprint CEO Dan Hesse said, “It willtake a while or the new (4G) network to