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Cloning Research Paper

Cloning Research Paper

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Published by Victoria Chen
These are my presentation notes/paper for an AP Biology science research I finished just now at the moment I uploaded this. :D

Anyway, it's about cloning. Feel free to request to make it downloadable if you want a copy.

Corrections are welcome. :)

It corresponds with a presentation at this link, if anybody is interested:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/15331443/Cloning
These are my presentation notes/paper for an AP Biology science research I finished just now at the moment I uploaded this. :D

Anyway, it's about cloning. Feel free to request to make it downloadable if you want a copy.

Corrections are welcome. :)

It corresponds with a presentation at this link, if anybody is interested:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/15331443/Cloning

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Published by: Victoria Chen on May 13, 2009
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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11/06/2012

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Cloning
Cloning in Pop Culture:
There are many movies out there having to do with the idea of having clones of someone or something. Inmovies, it usually is always with the case of humans. Here are some examples of some movies and showsthat have cloning involved in them.The one that is the least likely to happen is the one in Dexter’s Lab. In Dexter’s lab, the characters speak of a “cloning machine” like it’s a copying machine. Cloning just doesn’t work that way.
What is cloning?
In Nature:
In nature, cloning is the process of producing populations of genetically-identical individuals. The organismsthat are involved in “cloning” are usually the ones involved in asexual reproduction, such as bacteria, plants,and insects.
In Biotechnology:
In biotechnology, cloning is the process used to create artificial copies of DNA fragments, cells, or organisms. Usually this is done by taking out the chromosomes in an egg cell by removing the nucleus andreplacing them with ones extracted from an adult organism. The egg is then implanted in the womb of ananimal – usually one closest in species to the original organism, and left to develop into first an embryo, andthen into a living organism.
Two Different Types of Cloning:
There are two different types of cloning: therapeutic and reproductive. Reproductive cloning involvescreating an organism in order to make a copy of it – it’s the one we most commonly know. Therapeuticcloning is used for many things including stem cell research, research into human development, and genetherapies.While both uses the same methods of development, the differences are that reproductive cloning is whenthe scientists allow the embryo to grow into a living organism, such as an anima, while therapeutic cloning iswhen the somatic cell is allowed to grow for approximately two weeks and then cells that were grown inside,usually a human tissue or stem cells, would be extracted. These things that are “grown” are usually stemcells, human tissue, or even whole organs that are used as a replacement organ during transplants inhumans.
Human Cloning:
In present day, human cloning is
NOT
possible in most areas of the world. The reason for this is currently,any biological experimentation on humans is illegal in most of the world (including drug tests) UNLESShumans volunteer for them. The debate arose only after the famous Dolly the Sheep, the first animal clone,was produced in 1996 when the idea that if people could clone a sheep, they could clone humans started todevelop. Several reasons for why this is illegal are because of the religious and ethical controversiessurrounding this issue. Not only that but seeing as 1 or 2 out of 100 attempts at cloning were successful andbecause we also have a lack of understanding regarding human reproductive cloning, it would be unethicalto try.Even if the cloning were to be successful, scientists aren’t sure of the impact it would have on the humanclone’s mind. As mood and intellect aren’t as important to mice and cows, for a healthy human, these arevery important.
 
So as of right now, legal human cloning for us is to the extent of natural-born twins. Twins are born withsame copies of DNA – so technically, they are clones of each other. Scientists have deemed that at thistime, cloning humans are potentially dangerous and unethically irresponsible.A few years ago, five scientists volunteered their own genetic information to create five human embryos for human clones. They were made in pretty much the same manner as all previous clones had been before,but when they were finished, they weren’t implanted. Instead, they were just left there because at the time,there was a serious debate going on about whether it would be right to implant the five embryos and allowthem to develop. At the end, the scientists decided to destroy all five embryos and all of the researchmaterials involved in their creation to end the debate.On March 9, 2001, Severini Antinori, an Italian fertility specialist, appeared at a conference debating onhuman cloning. He made it clear that he had plans to start cloning humans and that he was ready to do so,as he himself had led many experiments involving the cloning of animals in the lab. However, the momenthe made his intentions clear, the Italian medical authorities said that if he carried out his experiment, hewould risk his right to practice cloning in Italy.In November 2002, Severini Antinori announced that a project to clone human beings had succeeded, dueto be born in January of 2003. His claim was received with much skepticismThe Human Reproduction Technology Amendment (Prohibition of Human Cloning) Bill 2003 was written inWestern Australia to prohibit human cloning in Australia. On line 11, clause 53 C, it says:
53C. Offence -- creating a human embryo cloneA person commits a crime if the person creates a humanembryo clone.Penalty: A fine of 900 penalty units or imprisonment for15 years or both.53D. Offence -- placing a human embryo clone in the human body or thebody of an animalA person commits a crime if the person places a humanembryo clone in the body of a human or the body of ananimal.Penalty: A fine of 900 penalty units or imprisonment for15 years or both.53E. Offence -- importing or exporting a human embryoclone(1) A person commits a crime if the person imports a humanembryo clone into the State from a place outsideAustralia.Penalty: A fine of 900 penalty units or imprisonmentfor 15 years or both.
 
(2) A person commits a crime if the person exports a humanembryo clone from the State to a place outsideAustralia.Penalty: A fine of 900 penalty units or imprisonment for15 years or both.53F. No defence that human embryo clone could not surviveIt is not a defence to an offence under section 53C, 53D or 53Ethat the human embryo clone did not survive or could not havesurvived.
On October 9, 2002, Clonaid, a medical arm of a religion called Raelism, who believed that aliens introducedhuman life on Earth, claimed to have successfully cloned a human being, claiming that aliens had taughtthem how to do it by providing them the technologies and the methods. This drew a lot of doubts as recordsshow that Clonaid has never cloned any kind of animal previously. The spokesperson told the public that anindependent agency would be proving that Eva, the clone, is the exact same copy as her mother. However,shortly afterwards, the testing was stopped and the spokesperson claimed that the decision was ultimatelyleft to the Eva’s parents.In December 2004, Dr. Brigitte Boisselier, Clonaid’s Chief Executive, claimed in a letter to the UN thatClonaid had successfully cloned thirteen more children, but to protect them, their identities would not bedisclosed to the public.All these claims hold some skepticism on their validity as none of these people who claimed to have made ahuman clone had any evidence to back up their claim. Whether those thirteen children actually do exist or if Severini Antironi ever succeeded in cloning a human, we will never know due to lack of any evidence.
Meet the Clones:
These are in no particular order.
Copycat
This is Cc when the success of This is Cc’s original “copy”.her cloning was made public.The world's first cloned kitten, named Cc, was created by scientists in Texas using a cell taken from an adulttortoiseshell female in late 2001. The strangest thing about this clone is that Cc looks nothing like her original copy – so she isn’t much of a physical copycat – just a genetic one.

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