discusses vocabulary and comprehension instruction,important at the Expanding Literacy stage and also critical asstudents begin to focus on reading to learn (EnhancingLiteracy). There is much overlap between the two stages of Expanding and Enhancing Literacy. As young readers developtheir reading abilities, they begin to use reading to learn. It isessential, therefore, that teachers at all levels attend to thedimensions of vocabulary and comprehension. It is alsoessential that teachers of content areas focus not only onvocabulary and comprehension, but, if necessary, assist theirstudents in enhancing their word level skills.
In this chapter, research and theory about readinginstruction is used as a foundation for the ideas and strategiespresented. As mentioned previously, four perspectives or lensesare provided for looking at the literacy curriculum and atstudent learning. Reading is
a meaning-based process
, withreaders bringing what they know and believe to what ispresented in the text, and through that interaction creating anunderstanding. That understanding is a
or personal“process” given the different experiences and purposes thatreaders bring to text. At the same time, reading is a
process that is enhanced when supported by talk, dialogue, andcollaboration with others. As readers interact with others aboutwhat they have read, they discuss contradictions or confusionscreated by text and enhance their understanding of thematerial. Reading is also a
process in that itinvolves the use of language as a means of learning across allsubject areas. Students need much opportunity to use languagefor authentic, communicative purposes. Creating environmentsthat provide for authentic language learning means integratingthe language processes with each other, especially reading andwriting. These four lenses create a framework for all teachers asthey help students learn to read and read to learn. Thus, thischapter has information important for teachers of reading andfor content area teachers who understand how important it is tohelp students in their interaction with written text.There are varying perspectives about reading instruction,especially in how to teach beginning reading. The current viewcalls for a “balanced” approach to initial reading instruction,one that provides systematic phonics instruction embedded
Reading: Transacting with Text