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Anaphase

Anaphase

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Published by: Dan Alexis Morco Arinzana on Jul 13, 2013
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ANAPHASE
 
KINDS OF FOSSILS
MOLD FOSSILCAST FOSSILIMPRINT FOSSILPERTIFIED FOSSILWHOLE FOSSIL
 
 
Adenosine diphosphate
Adenosine diphosphate
, abbreviated
ADP
, is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.A molecule of ADP consists of three important structural components: a sugar    backbone which is attached to a molecule of  adenosine and two  phosphate groups located around its ring structure. The carbon molecules that makeup the ring structure of a sugar can be named in a way which more specifically designates the location of the phosphate and adenosine attachments. The sugar backbone of ADP isknown as a pentose sugar and consists of five carbon molecules. The two phosphate groups of ADP are added
in series to the 5’ carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine molecule attaches to the 1’ carbon.
Adenosine triphosphate
Adenosine-5'-triphosphate
(
ATP
) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme.It is often called the"molecular  unit of  currency"of intracellular  energy transfer .
 ATP transports chemical energy within cells  for  metabolism.It is one of the end products of   photophosphorylation, cellular respiration,and fermentation and used by enzymes and structural proteins in many cellular processes, including  biosynthetic reactions, motility,  and cell division.
 One molecule of ATP contains three phosphate groups, and it is produced by a wide varietyof enzymes, including ATP synthase,from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or  adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and various phosphate group donors. Substrate level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation in cellular  respiration,and  photophosphorylation in  photosynthesis are three major mechanisms of ATP biosynthesis.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
, abbreviated
NADP
+
or, in older notation,
TPN
 (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a coenzyme used in anabolic reactions,such as lipid and nucleic acid  synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.   NADPH is the reduced form of NADP
+
. NADP
+
differs from  NAD
+
 in the presence of an additional  phosphate group on the 2' position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety. 
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the sun,  into chemical energy that can be used to fuel the organisms' activities. Carbohydrates, such as sugars, aresynthesized from carbon dioxide and water (hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek  
ς
, 
 phōs
, "light",and 
, 
 synthesis
, "putting together"
). Oxygen is also released, mostly as a waste product. Most

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