Public Policy and Administration Researchwww.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5731(Paper) ISSN 2225-0972(Online)Vol.3, No.6, 2013
15nation (Psacharopoulos and Patrinos, 2004, Galabawa, 2005& Becker 1992).Eager to remain competitive in the global market place, many federal states and state governments of the UnitedStates (US), UK and other governments of the world focus on significant attention on school improvement. Theyare calling schools to adapt rapidly towards changing technologies of production and produce a competitiveworkforce (Hoyle & Wallace, 2005, Sergiovanni & Starred, 2007).Indeed, it is generally argued that quality education is unavoidable expense which must be undertaken by eachand every country (Nkinyangi, 2006). It is a Universal phenomenon for mankind asset which upholds andperpetuates human beings time honored by virtues. Underscoring the importance of investing in education,Brock-Utne says:
Education sector is not just like any other public sector, it is an investment sector, a sector dealing with humancapital. When the right investments are made, the benefits both for the individual and society will be great (2006).
Although in this statement one can say that, Brock was trying to disregard economists who view education as aninvestment and not a right, joy and tool for liberation and emancipation process, the reality remains that,education is an investment as well. The difference is that, education is a labor intensive; its fruits take longer andcannot be observed immediately like other investments such as roads, buildings and other infrastructures.Castells (2000) sees that the most important infrastructure in the economy in the contemporary age is the humanbrain of a given society, to link its brain and the brain of the world. Becker (2006) states that
“while all forms of capital are important including machinery, factories and financial capital, human capital is the most significant
”.Due to that, there has been a growing belief that external evaluation can make teachers more accountable for theprovision of education mostly desired by the society. School inspection therefore has been viewed to be a majormeans through which countries can monitor the quality of education provided to the citizens, Thus,establishment of external evaluation policies in education has become a prominent feature of many governmentsof the world in order to ensure that national goals and objectives are implemented (Webb et al., 1998, Wilcox,2000 & MacBeath, 2006).Many governments have passed legislation and policies demanding improved academic achievement by allpupils including effective teaching where teachers will be evaluated (Sergiovanni and Starratt, 2007). Bothindustrialized nations such as North America, Western Europe, Australia and Developing countries like Tanzaniaare moving towards that path (Black &William, 2001, Richards, 2001, Leslie, 2003, Sergiovanni & Starratt2007).It is also argued that, external evaluation can aid the government to be familiar on how financial resourcescommitted to education lead in to productivity. More importantly, it is argued that external evaluation throughinspection will provide information that will make parents and taxpayers see the true value of the moneyinvested in the education of their children (Levin, 1991). This would be the case as a result of increased demandand competition in the labor market driven economy. Parents would like to see that their children havecompetitive knowledge and skills to meet the labor market demands and challenges (Friedman, 1995). For thesereasons and many others, there has been an increased concern of controlling the work of the teachers in theclassroom setting (Gaynor &Grauwe, 2007). School inspection ultimately has been conceived to be the meansand vehicle towards achieving that goal. On the basis of this wave, it is worthwhile for this paper now to turn itsfocus to how educational reforms in Tanzania led to the establishment of school inspection.
Establishment of School Inspection Division in Tanzania
From 1961 until the present time, the analysis of Government efforts to improve education suggests that, thefocus of education policy has for long been the distribution and equalization of education opportunities throughthe expansion of systems at all levels. The emphasis is now on the improvement of the quality of education,expansion of education and training opportunities to meet the ever increasing demand of these services (URT,2008).After the independence of Tanzania in 1961, the education passed the education act of 1962 to regulate theprovision of education in the country. Among other things, the government abolished the racial discrimination inthe provision of education and streamlined the curriculum, examinations as well as the financing of education tobe provided with evenness (URT, 2010).Between 1967 to1978, the government took several steps and enacted several laws in order to improveeducation. These laws and steps included the inter alia, the education act of 1969 and 1978, the Decentralizationprogramme of 1972; the National examination Act No 21 0f 1973 and the Musoma resolution of 1974. TheEducation Act No 25 of 1978 included the establishment of school inspectorate (URT, 2008).The Tanzania Development vision of 2025 envisages the total elimination of poverty by 2025.In this visioneducation sector is considered to play the decisive role in bringing the social and economic transformation and