Bradbury & Williams: Key to freshwater amphipods 3
1 and 2. Various forms recognised: mitten-like, small,rectangular, the palmar angle transverse (as in
); cantilevered (erroneously “eusirid”)as in
; ovate, in which the palmar angle isstrongly oblique, as in the second gnathopod of
.(Figs. 1, 3).
. Clear and translucent, usually relating to lobesof the appendages.
. Living underground.
. The apical portion of the mandible usuallyformed into a toothed chewing edge or untoothedchopping plate. (Fig. 2).
. Found in water filled spaces betweensubstrate such as in coarse stream beds or aquifersin porous sediments.
. Third article of pereopod. (Fig. 3).
. The juncture between two articles of an appendage.
. (See lower lip).
. (See upper lip).
. An articulated accessory plate proximalto the mandibular incisor (can be absent or missingon either left or right mandibles, occasionallyindistinguishable from a robust seta of the accessoryseta-row). (Fig. 2).
. Shaped like the blade of a lance.
lower lip (labium)
. A fleshy complex posterior to themandibles, always composed of at least one pair of lobes (outer), often with a medioproximal pair of innerlobes; the lateroproximal ends of the outer lobes areoften attenuated as alae and are denoted as mandibularlobes. (Fig. 2).
. Condition of the third uropod in which theinner and outer rami are approximately equally extended.
. The anterior movable appendage of thebuccal group; usually composed of a body bearinga distal incisor, a lacinia mobilis, robust seta row,molar, and, in most taxa, a 3-articulate (sometimesreduced) palp. (Fig. 2).
mandibular palp setae
. Setae of palp articles 2 or 3 setaedefined according to origin:
. (Fig. 2).(Two nomenclatural systems operate—see Fig. 5).
. A pair of cephalic appendages posterior tothe lower lip (labium); for taxonomic purposes onlythree portions of each member are named: themedial (inner) lobe (plate) usually bearing marginalsetae, the lateral (outer) and larger lobe (plate)bearing terminal robust setae and, attached to theouter lobe, a palp usually composed of two articlesbut occasionally absent. (Fig. 2).
. A pair of cephalic appendages posterior tomaxilla 1; for taxonomic purposes recognised as a pairof lobes (plates) medial and lateral, usually stronglysetose. (Fig. 2).
. The posterior most pair of “cephalic”appendages, representing the primitive first thoracicsegment now amalgamated with the head but inamphipod taxonomy not included in the sequentialnumbering of thoracic appendages; for taxonomicpurposes recognised as a pair of basally amalga-mated appendages, each member composed of aninner (proximal) plate, an outer (distal) plate, and apalp of four articles, rarely reduced to 3 or 2 articlesor absent. (Fig. 2).
. Pertaining to the merus (fourth article of thepereopod).
. Fourth article of pereopod. (Fig. 3).
. A process of the mandible, located on the mid-medial margin; when completely developed it is amassive, subcylindrical body with a surface of ridgesand teeth used for grinding (see triturative). (Fig. 2).
. Condition of dactylus (of pereopods);bearing 2–6+ medial robust setae.
. Used, in conjunction with a number, to indicate theposition of an object as a fraction of the distance fromthe base to the apex of an appendage, e.g., M = 0.5indicates half way from base to apex.
. Apical portion of dactyl (not always distinct).
. Lost, become obsolete.
. The angle the posterior margin of thegnathopodal propodus makes with the palm; variesfrom transverse in rectangular propodi to stronglyoblique in ovate propodi.
. The point at which the palm meets theposterior margin of the propodus: often bearingmodified setae; not clearly defined where the propodusis ovate. (Fig. 3).
. A posteroventral surface or margin of propodus(article 6) of a gnathopod or pereopod upon whicharticle 7 (dactyl) closes; usually recognisablebecause of expansion of article 6 or by occurrenceof special robust setae or other ornamentation andusually with a proximal defining limit marked by achange in marginal slope or occurrence of specialrobust setae. (Fig. 3).
. Terminal articles of a buccal appendage; inAmphipoda, only on mandibles, first maxillae, andmaxillipeds as the narrow terminal articles distal tothe expanded outer plates or main body. (Fig. 2).
. Condition of the third uropod in whichthe inner ramus is reduced to a small scale. (Fig. 4).
. Shortening and thickening of antennae, especiallypeduncles. Seen in South African paramelitids, lesscommon among Australian paramelitids, e.g.,
. The basal articles of a fundamentally biramousappendage; in Amphipoda applied to antennae,pleopods, and uropods; antenna 1 with threepeduncular articles, antenna 2 with five pedunculararticles (but appendage not biramous); pleopods withone definitive peduncular article but remnants of othersoccurring proximally; uropods each with onepeduncular article. (Figs. 2, 4).
. A segment of the pereon.
. The complex of seven free thoracic segmentsbearing gnathopods and pereopods, not including themaxillipeds. (Fig. 1).
. A walking, grasping, standing, or feedingappendage attached to a pereonite; normally composedof seven articles, including coxa; in Amphipoda thefirst two pairs are usually termed gnathopods and onlythe last five pairs of thoracic legs called pereopods(but numbered P3–P7). Terms for articles of theappendages, i.e. coxa, basis, ischium, merus, carpus,propodus, and dactylus are frequently but notuniversally used in Gammaridea; instead, thearticles may be simply numbered from 1 for coxato 7 for dactyl. (Figs. 1, 3).
. A flattened lobe on an article of a maxilla ormaxilliped.
. A segment of the pleon.
. The abdomen (of six free segments inGammaridea, rarely with some segments coalesced).See urosome. (Fig. 1).
. A biramous swimming appendage on pleonites1–3, one pair for each pleonite. (Fig. 4).