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Key to Inland Aquatic Amphipods of Australia

Key to Inland Aquatic Amphipods of Australia

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Technical Reports of the Australian Museum (1999) No. 14. ISSN 1031-8062, ISBN 0-7313-8857-7
Key to and Checklist of the Inland AquaticAmphipods of Australia
J.H. B
& W.D. W
Department of Environmental Biology, University of Adelaide SA 5005, Australia jbradbury@zoology.adelaide.edu.au
. A key to the 74 known species of amphipods inhabiting Australian inland waters isgiven, as well as a glossary of terms, illustrations, checklist to the species and taxonomic references.
, J.H., & W.D. W
, 1999. Key to and checklist of the inland aquatic amphipods of Australia.
Technical Reports of the Australian Museum
14: 1–21.
The amphipods of Australian inland waters have beenneglected taxonomically; they are often difficult tocollect, frequently cryptic, difficult to identify and havefew obvious characters. The result is that amphipodshave not been used as environmental indicators byaquatic biologists involved in environmental surveysand the management of water resources, despite theirrole as significant components of freshwater and otherinland aquatic ecosystems and their sensitivity toenvironmental degradation.In recent years new foundations for the taxonomyof Australian freshwater amphipods have beenpublished (Williams & Barnard, 1988, Barnard &Williams, 1995). These have promoted subsequenttaxonomic works (Bradbury & Williams, 1995, 1996,1997b; Bradbury
et al
., 1998), and since 1995 thenumber of described Australian freshwater amphipodtaxa has increased to over 70 species. Nevertheless,more species remain to be described.Available keys are of limited use in that they are nowoutdated (e.g., Barnard & Barnard, 1983), address onlycertain parts of the fauna (e.g., Williams & Barnard,1988), provide information at higher levels only (e.g.,Horwitz
et al
., 1995), or relate to marine taxa (e.g.,Barnard, 1969). This new key, based on contemporaryknowledge, enables the identification to species levelof all described Australian inland aquatic amphipods.Figures provided with this key indicate characters of taxonomic importance. A glossary of terms andchecklist of all species including author and date andtype locality are included.We have drawn on various sources, particularlyoriginal descriptions, as well as available keys, and havere-examined specimens where necessary. Some areas of uncertainty exist: the considerable diversity of Tasmanianspecies means that many new taxa have yet to bedescribed. Among mainland populations, too, new specieshave been identified and await description; hypogeanspecimens from several areas, including Tasmania, SouthAustralia, Queensland and Western Australia, are in theprocess of analysis. Specimens which do not easily keyto a taxon, therefore, are likely to be new to science, unlessof marine origin (often found in estuarine waters) or fromterrestrial sources (the terrestrial Talitridae inhabit dampareas, often close to shores and streams, and may be foundin fresh waters as accidentals). Such taxa are not coveredby this key. Efforts should be made to preserve unknownspecimens (in 70% ethanol), prevent damage toindividuals (by careful handling and packaging), and seektaxonomic guidance. As many details as possibleconcerning the site (date, exact location, water quality,temperature) and identity of collector should be noted.
2 Technical Reports of the Australian Museum (1999) No. 14
The sex of specimens cannot always be determined asimmature animals do not often display distinguishingsexual characteristics. Late juvenile and adult femalesbear oostegites upon the coxae of pereopods two to five.In males, gnathopods are often enlarged, and havenotched palms, there is a small penile apparatus at theposterior margin of the seventh sternite, and, particularlyin the crangonyctoids and eusirids, calceoli are oftenpresent on the second antenna.
Glossary of termsaccessory flagellum
. The secondary ramus of antenna 1attached medially to peduncular article 3, often absentor vestigial. (Fig. 2).
accessory setal row
. Of the mandible, consisting of bladesetae and plumose setae, lying between incisor andmolar. (Fig. 2).
. Sensory setae of antennae, flattened and non-tapering. (Fig. 2).
. Wing-like extensions.
. A segment of an appendage.
. Second article of pereopod, in pereopods 5–7 oftenlaterally expanded and posteroventrally lobate. (Fig. 3).
. Character located at base of dactyl. (Fig. 3).
basofacial robust seta
. Robust seta on basolateral faceof appendage; often used in connection with Uropod1. (Fig. 4).
bifid seta
. Seta with the apex divided—as distinct fromtrigger seta. (Fig. 3).
. Relating to the mouth.
, (pl.
). A small globular or helmet-shaped, articulate sense organ usually on the malesecond antenna; presumably a modified aesthetasc; of rare occurrence in Gammaridea and most often seenin Eusiridae. Of diagnostic form (type “9”—Lincoln& Hurley, 1981) among crangonyctoids. (Fig. 2).
. Fifth article of pereopod. (Fig. 3).
. Descriptive of the palm of a gnathopodprotruding as an immovable finger on which the dactylcloses. Also subchelate, parachelate, carpochelate,propodochelate, merochelate; complexly subchelateor complexly chelate are terms referring to theformation of a false chela by protrusion of teeth, cusps,or lobes from articles other than the sixth and upon whicharticle 7 impinges to form a prehensile condition.
. Immovable finger of prehensile appendage.
claw, claw-like
. Descriptive of a talon or simple,tapering nail. (Not descriptive of chelae as used indecapod terminology).
. Flattened from side to side.
. Describing the basal amalgamation of flagellararticles on antennae. (Fig. 2).
coxa, coxal plate
. [Terms used synonymously] Article 1of a pereonal appendage, expanded into a laterallamella. (Figs. 1, 3).
. Talon-like terminal article of pereopods (article7) or maxillipedal palp articles 4. (Figs. 2, 3).
. Refers to a branching form, in particular of sternal gills; from
Gr. = tree. (Fig. 4).
. Finely toothed.
. Flattened dorsoventrally.
. Rami not similar; especially of uropods,one (usually the medial) ramus of modified form andreduced length.
. Descriptive of the concave posterior end of an uncleft telson or posterodorsal margin of coxa 4(see also excavate). (Fig. 3).
. Descriptive of an uncleft telson.
. Living above ground.
). Lateral pleuron of pleonites 1–3; the ventrolateral plate-like extension of the bodysegment, often bearing setae or postventral tooth(spine) of taxonomic significance. (Figs. 1, 4).
. The anterior surface of the head above thelabrum; this area is often extended ventrally to appearas a part of the labrum and may be anteriorly producedas a cusp or lobe.
. Used by some authors (e.g., Williams &Barnard, 1988) to describe gnathopods in which thepropodus is inflated, palms simplified and elongate,and the flexibility increased by narrowing of theconnection between propodus and carpus, the jointbeing cantilevered; usually both pairs of gnathopodsvery similar, e.g., gnathopods of perthiids. (Fig. 5).Since Eusiridae have many gnathopod forms this termis best avoided.
. In particular, refers to the concave reductionof the posterodorsal corner of coxa 4 (see alsoemarginate). (Fig. 3). Sometimes used in reference toa notched gnathopodal palm.
. Having the curved shape of a falcon’s wing;especially refers to the ultimate article of a mandibularpalp.
. The distal portion of either antenna; on thefirst antenna it commences with article 4, on the secondantenna with article 6; because basal pedunculararticles of antenna 2 are often difficult to resolve, the juncture may be recognised between the elongatedfinal peduncular article and the shortened first flagellararticle which is followed by similar short articles; onantenna 1, however, article 1 of the flagellum isoccasionally elongate and apparently composed of non-segregated (thus conjoint) articles. (Fig. 2).
. Leaf-like.
. Associated with the habit of burrowing, oftenreferring to the excessively spinose or setose conditionof appendages used for burrowing by Gammaridea;e.g.,
Totgammarus eximius
pereopods 5–6,
pereopod 6.
. Permanently bent, e.g., in reference to flexedantennae.
gills: coxal
. Usually paddle-like, fragile structuresattached to coxae, adjacent leg. Absent from first coxa.(Fig. 3).
gills: sternal
. Medial or lateral (or both) structuresextending from some or all of ventral sternites 2–7—various types: simple = non branching = sausage-likee.g.,
; or lumpy = bearing smalllumps, but not branched e.g.,
; or dendritic= branched e.g.,
(the presence of some,but not necessarily all, dendritic sternal gills earns thedescriptor). (Fig. 4).
gnathopod dimorphism
. Sexual variation in the size orform of gnathopods—male organ usually larger,thought to function in copulation as grasping organ,often seen to bear a notch (“excavate”) approximatelymidway along the palm e.g.,
sp. (Fig. 3).
. First two pairs of free thoracic appendages,differing in function and usually in appearance fromfollowing pereopods; rarely referred to as pereopods
Bradbury & Williams: Key to freshwater amphipods 3
1 and 2. Various forms recognised: mitten-like, small,rectangular, the palmar angle transverse (as in
); cantilevered (erroneously “eusirid”)as in
; ovate, in which the palmar angle isstrongly oblique, as in the second gnathopod of 
.(Figs. 1, 3).
. Clear and translucent, usually relating to lobesof the appendages.
. Living underground.
. The apical portion of the mandible usuallyformed into a toothed chewing edge or untoothedchopping plate. (Fig. 2).
. Found in water filled spaces betweensubstrate such as in coarse stream beds or aquifersin porous sediments.
. Third article of pereopod. (Fig. 3).
. The juncture between two articles of an appendage.
. (See lower lip).
. (See upper lip).
lacinia mobilis
. An articulated accessory plate proximalto the mandibular incisor (can be absent or missingon either left or right mandibles, occasionallyindistinguishable from a robust seta of the accessoryseta-row). (Fig. 2).
. Shaped like the blade of a lance.
lower lip (labium)
. A fleshy complex posterior to themandibles, always composed of at least one pair of lobes (outer), often with a medioproximal pair of innerlobes; the lateroproximal ends of the outer lobes areoften attenuated as alae and are denoted as mandibularlobes. (Fig. 2).
. Condition of the third uropod in which theinner and outer rami are approximately equally extended.
. The anterior movable appendage of thebuccal group; usually composed of a body bearinga distal incisor, a lacinia mobilis, robust seta row,molar, and, in most taxa, a 3-articulate (sometimesreduced) palp. (Fig. 2).
mandibular palp setae
. Setae of palp articles 2 or 3 setaedefined according to origin:
. (Fig. 2).(Two nomenclatural systems operate—see Fig. 5).
maxilla 1
. A pair of cephalic appendages posterior tothe lower lip (labium); for taxonomic purposes onlythree portions of each member are named: themedial (inner) lobe (plate) usually bearing marginalsetae, the lateral (outer) and larger lobe (plate)bearing terminal robust setae and, attached to theouter lobe, a palp usually composed of two articlesbut occasionally absent. (Fig. 2).
maxilla 2
. A pair of cephalic appendages posterior tomaxilla 1; for taxonomic purposes recognised as a pairof lobes (plates) medial and lateral, usually stronglysetose. (Fig. 2).
. The posterior most pair of “cephalic”appendages, representing the primitive first thoracicsegment now amalgamated with the head but inamphipod taxonomy not included in the sequentialnumbering of thoracic appendages; for taxonomicpurposes recognised as a pair of basally amalga-mated appendages, each member composed of aninner (proximal) plate, an outer (distal) plate, and apalp of four articles, rarely reduced to 3 or 2 articlesor absent. (Fig. 2).
. Pertaining to the merus (fourth article of thepereopod).
. Fourth article of pereopod. (Fig. 3).
. A process of the mandible, located on the mid-medial margin; when completely developed it is amassive, subcylindrical body with a surface of ridgesand teeth used for grinding (see triturative). (Fig. 2).
. Condition of dactylus (of pereopods);bearing 2–6+ medial robust setae.
. Used, in conjunction with a number, to indicate theposition of an object as a fraction of the distance fromthe base to the apex of an appendage, e.g., M = 0.5indicates half way from base to apex.
. Apical portion of dactyl (not always distinct).
. Lost, become obsolete.
palmar angle
. The angle the posterior margin of thegnathopodal propodus makes with the palm; variesfrom transverse in rectangular propodi to stronglyoblique in ovate propodi.
palmar corner
. The point at which the palm meets theposterior margin of the propodus: often bearingmodified setae; not clearly defined where the propodusis ovate. (Fig. 3).
. A posteroventral surface or margin of propodus(article 6) of a gnathopod or pereopod upon whicharticle 7 (dactyl) closes; usually recognisablebecause of expansion of article 6 or by occurrenceof special robust setae or other ornamentation andusually with a proximal defining limit marked by achange in marginal slope or occurrence of specialrobust setae. (Fig. 3).
. Terminal articles of a buccal appendage; inAmphipoda, only on mandibles, first maxillae, andmaxillipeds as the narrow terminal articles distal tothe expanded outer plates or main body. (Fig. 2).
. Condition of the third uropod in whichthe inner ramus is reduced to a small scale. (Fig. 4).
. Shortening and thickening of antennae, especiallypeduncles. Seen in South African paramelitids, lesscommon among Australian paramelitids, e.g.,
. The basal articles of a fundamentally biramousappendage; in Amphipoda applied to antennae,pleopods, and uropods; antenna 1 with threepeduncular articles, antenna 2 with five pedunculararticles (but appendage not biramous); pleopods withone definitive peduncular article but remnants of othersoccurring proximally; uropods each with onepeduncular article. (Figs. 2, 4).
. A segment of the pereon.
. The complex of seven free thoracic segmentsbearing gnathopods and pereopods, not including themaxillipeds. (Fig. 1).
. A walking, grasping, standing, or feedingappendage attached to a pereonite; normally composedof seven articles, including coxa; in Amphipoda thefirst two pairs are usually termed gnathopods and onlythe last five pairs of thoracic legs called pereopods(but numbered P3–P7). Terms for articles of theappendages, i.e. coxa, basis, ischium, merus, carpus,propodus, and dactylus are frequently but notuniversally used in Gammaridea; instead, thearticles may be simply numbered from 1 for coxato 7 for dactyl. (Figs. 1, 3).
. A flattened lobe on an article of a maxilla ormaxilliped.
. A segment of the pleon.
. The abdomen (of six free segments inGammaridea, rarely with some segments coalesced).See urosome. (Fig. 1).
. A biramous swimming appendage on pleonites1–3, one pair for each pleonite. (Fig. 4).

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