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Introduction
Conventions Used in This Book
Foolish Assumptions
How This Book Is Organized
Part I: Setting the Stage for Mechanics of Materials
Part II: Analyzing Stress
Part III: Investigating Strain
Part IV: Applying Stress and Strain
Part V: The Part of Tens
Icons Used in This Book
Where to Go from Here
Setting the Stage for Mechanics of Materials
Chapter 1
Tying Statics and Mechanics Together
Defining Behavior in Mechanics of Materials
Stress
Strain
Using Stresses to Study Behavior
Studying Behavior through Strains
Incorporating the “Material” into Mechanics of Materials
Putting Mechanics to Work
Chapter 2
Reviewing Mathematics and Units Used in Mechanics of Materials
Grasping Important Geometry Concepts
Tackling Simultaneous Algebraic Equations
Taking On Basic Trig Identities
Covering Basic Calculus
Integration and differentiation of polynomials
Defining maximum and minimum values with calculus
Working with Units in Mechanics of Materials
SI units
U.S. customary units
Micro and kip: Noting two exceptions
All the derived mechanics units you’ll ever need
Sketching the World around You with Free-Body Diagrams
Support reactions
Self weight
Reviewing Equilibrium for Statics
Locating Internal Forces at a Point
Finding Internal Loads at Multiple Locations
Writing generalized equations
Determining Cross-Sectional Area
Classifying cross-sectional areas
Computing cross-sectional areas
Considering prismatic members
Defining symmetry of cross sections
Finding the Centroid of an Area
Making discrete region calculations
Working with continuous (general) regions
Using symmetry to avoid centroid calculations
Referencing with the Centroidal Axis
Computing Q, the First Moment of Area
Establishing the equations for Q
Revisiting centroid calculations with first moment of area
Determining Q within a cross section
Creating a table for calculating Q about a centroidal axis
Encore! Encore! I, a Second Moment of Area
Conceptualizing on area moments of inertia
Categorizing area moments of inertia
Calculating Basic Area Moments of Inertia
Keeping inertia simple with basic shapes and centroidal axes
Transferring reference locations with the parallel axis theorem
Having It Both Ways with Product Moments of Area
Including x- and y-axes for product moment calculations
Computing the product moment of area
Putting a Twist on Polar Moments of Inertia
Computing Principal Moments of Inertia
Calculating principal moments of inertia
Finding the principal orientation angles
Determining moments of area at specific orientation angles
Rounding Up the Radius of Gyration
Dealing with a Stressful Relationship
Calculating stress
Defining the types of stress
Understanding the units of stress
Computing average normal stress for axial loads
Determining average shear stress
Developing Stress at a Point
Deriving stresses at a single point by using force components
Looking at useful shear stress identities for stress at a point
Containing Plane Stress
Preparing to Work with Stresses
Extending Stress Transformations to Plane Stress Conditions
Displaying the Effects of Transformed Stresses
Wedging in on the action with stress wedges
Rotating the basic stress element
When Transformed Stresses Aren’t Big Enough: Principal Stresses
Defining the principal normal stresses
Orienting the angles for principal normal stresses
Calculating principal shear stresses
Finding the principal shear stress orientation angle
Utilizing Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress
Constructing the Mohr’s circle
Determining principal normal stresses and angles
Calculating other items with Mohr’s circle
Finding stress coordinates at arbitrary angles on Mohr’s circle
Adding a third dimension to Mohr’s circle
Defining Axial Stress
Exploring bearing stresses on flat surfaces
Perusing bearing stresses on projected planes
Containing Pressure with Pressure Vessels
Differentiating between thin- and thick-walled pressure vessels
Taking a closer look at thin-walled pressure vessels
When Average Stresses Reach a Peak: Finding Maximum Stress
Using the force lines to locate maximum stress
Concentrating on normal stress concentrations
Explaining Bending Stress
Handling Stresses in Bending
Solving Pure Bending Cases
Establishing basic assumptions
Computing stresses in pure-bending applications
Looking at pure bending of symmetrical cross sections
Bending of Non-Prismatic Beams
It’s Not Sheer Folly: Examining Shear Stress
Working with Average Shear Stresses
Shear on glue or contact surfaces
Shear for bolts and shafts
Punching shear
Exploring Shear Stresses from Flexural Loads
Handling shear stresses in nonuniform cross sections
Calculating Shear Stresses by Using Shear Flow
Going with the shear flow
Considering Torsion Characteristics
Determining torsion of non-circular cross sections
Using shear flow to analyze torsion of multicell cross sections
Looking at Deformation to Find Strain
Strained relationships: Comparing lengths
Examining units of strain
Using formulas for engineering and true strains
Normal and Shear: Seeking Some Direction on the Types of Strain
Getting it right with normal strain
Finding a new angle with shear strain
Expanding on Thermal Strains
Considering Plane Strains
Extending Stress Transformations to Plane Strain Conditions
Transforming strains
Sketching a rotated strain element
Calculating and Locating Principal Strain Conditions
Defining the principal normal strains
Determining the angles for principal normal strains
Computing the principal shear strain
Exploring Mohr’s Circle for Plane Strain
Gauging Strain with Strain Rosettes
Describing Material Behavior
Elastic and plastic behavior: Getting back in shape?
Ductile and brittle materials: Stretching or breaking
Creating the Great Equalizer: Stress-Strain Diagrams
Justifying stress-strain relationships
Describing materials with stress versus strain
Exploring Stress-Strain Curves for Materials
Site-seeing at points of interest on a stress-strain diagram
Knowing Who’s Who among Material Properties
Finding stiffness under load: Young’s modulus of elasticity
Relating Stress to Strain
Making assumptions in stress versus strain relationships
Hooke springs eternal! Using Hooke’s law for one dimension
Calculating stress from known strain values
Setting the Stage for Combining Stresses
Following some simple rules
Establishing a few handy conventions
Handling Multiple Axial Effects
Including Bending in Combined Stresses
Bending biaxially from inclined point loads
Combining flexural shear and bending stresses
Putting a Twist on Combined Stresses of Torsion and Shear
When Push Comes to Shove: Dealing with Deformations
Covering Deformation Calculation Basics
Defining stiffness
Making some key assumptions
Computing axial deformations
Determining relative displacements
Defining the elastic curve for displacements
Angling for a Twist Angle
Measuring the angle of twist in prismatic shafts
Measuring the angle of twist in compound torsion problems
Tackling Indeterminate Structures
Categorizing indeterminate structures
Clarifying assumptions for indeterminate methods
Withdrawing Support: Creating Multiple Redundant Systems
Axial bars with indeterminate supports
Systems of axial members
Flexural members of multiple supports
Torsion of shafts with indeterminate supports
Dealing with Multiple Materials
Axial bars of multiple materials
Flexure of multiple materials
Torsion of multiple materials
Using Rigid Behavior to Develop Compatibility
Rigid bar problems
Rigid end cap problems for axial and torsion cases
Getting Acquainted with Columns
Considering column types
Calculating a column’s slenderness ratio
Classifying columns with slenderness ratios
Determining the Strength of Short Columns
Buckling Under Pressure: Analyzing Long, Slender Columns
Determining column capacity
Computing elastic buckling stress
Incorporating support reactions into buckling calculations
Working with Intermediate Columns
Incorporating Bending Effects
Exploring Principles of the Design Process
Explaining member strength and design loads
Creating a design criteria
Developing a Design Procedure
Outlining a basic design procedure
Determining design requirements from modes of failure
Designing Axial Members
Calculating for simple tension members
Guessing a column classification for compression loads
Designing Flexural Members
Accounting for flexural shear
Designing for Torsion and Power
Interacting with Interaction Equations
Obeying the Law of Conservation of Energy
Working with Internal and External Energy
Finding the internal strain energy
Brace Yourself: Figuring Stresses and Displacements from Impact
Determining impact from kinetic energy
The Part of Tens
Not Determining Internal Forces First
Choosing the Wrong Section Property
Forgetting to Check for Symmetry in Bending Members
Carelessly Combining Stresses and Strains
Ignoring Generalized Hooke’s Law in Three Dimensions
Classifying Columns Incorrectly
Overlooking that Principal Normal Stresses Have No Shear
Neglecting to Test the Principal Angle after You Calculate It
Falling Victim to Tricky Issues with Mohr’s Circle
Expose Internal Forces
Identify How the Object Can Break
Compute Appropriate Section Properties
Sketch Combined Stress Elements
Transform Those Stresses!
Apply Factors of Safety and Local Code Requirements
Compute Strains and Deformations for Your Stress Elements
Design for Deflections
Index
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Mechanics of Materials for Dummies

# Mechanics of Materials for Dummies

Ratings: 0|Views: 1,432|Likes:
Introduction
Students undertaking a mechanics of materials class often find them- selves facing a common dilemma:
In their basic statics and dynamics
classes, they focused on dealing exclusively with a key set of assumptions — namely, that objects
subjected to load don’t deform — but mechanics of materials throws many of those assumptions out
the window.

Mechanics of materials is often your first foray into the real world from the land of theory in
mechanics and physics. This class is where you start to take your basic understanding of the world
around you and shape your surroundings to perform specific tasks; that is, you design stuff. This
point is where I tell students that with a bit of knowledge, you can become quite dangerous.

Mechanics of materials at its core is still a very theoretical class, but it quickly takes these
basic theories and applies them in new and unfamiliar ways. That’s why I’ve written Mechanics of
Materials For Dummies: to help make your transition from theoretical to practical as smooth and
simple as possible. My goal in this text is to illustrate the basic theory while showing you how to
actually apply these theories to real-world applications.

No mechanics of materials book can possibly show you how to analyze every type of problem you may
come across. Most mechanics of materials textbooks focus on complex derivations and variables that
result in several relatively simple formulas without providing a whole lot of explanation along the
way.

Mechanics of Materials For Dummies gives you the basic rundown of the theory but focuses more on
why you need to know the formulas and how to apply them rather than where exactly they came from. I
intend this book to serve more as an application-oriented text that utilizes the basic theories.
What exactly is a stress, and how do you relate it to the load-carrying capability of a material?
How do you determine the capacity of a long, slender column? How do you compute the angle of twist
of a shaft under torsion loads? All these topics (and many, many more) are common application
problems in engineering, and they provide a basis for the core of discussion covered in this
text.

Tip: For even more background on the topics in this book, check out my
Statics For Dummies (Wiley); it can help you refresh the statics vital to
mechanics of materials.
Introduction
Students undertaking a mechanics of materials class often find them- selves facing a common dilemma:
In their basic statics and dynamics
classes, they focused on dealing exclusively with a key set of assumptions — namely, that objects
subjected to load don’t deform — but mechanics of materials throws many of those assumptions out
the window.

Mechanics of materials is often your first foray into the real world from the land of theory in
mechanics and physics. This class is where you start to take your basic understanding of the world
around you and shape your surroundings to perform specific tasks; that is, you design stuff. This
point is where I tell students that with a bit of knowledge, you can become quite dangerous.

Mechanics of materials at its core is still a very theoretical class, but it quickly takes these
basic theories and applies them in new and unfamiliar ways. That’s why I’ve written Mechanics of
Materials For Dummies: to help make your transition from theoretical to practical as smooth and
simple as possible. My goal in this text is to illustrate the basic theory while showing you how to
actually apply these theories to real-world applications.

No mechanics of materials book can possibly show you how to analyze every type of problem you may
come across. Most mechanics of materials textbooks focus on complex derivations and variables that
result in several relatively simple formulas without providing a whole lot of explanation along the
way.

Mechanics of Materials For Dummies gives you the basic rundown of the theory but focuses more on
why you need to know the formulas and how to apply them rather than where exactly they came from. I
intend this book to serve more as an application-oriented text that utilizes the basic theories.
What exactly is a stress, and how do you relate it to the load-carrying capability of a material?
How do you determine the capacity of a long, slender column? How do you compute the angle of twist
of a shaft under torsion loads? All these topics (and many, many more) are common application
problems in engineering, and they provide a basis for the core of discussion covered in this
text.

Tip: For even more background on the topics in this book, check out my
Statics For Dummies (Wiley); it can help you refresh the statics vital to
mechanics of materials.

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