Classification of pre stressed concrete mbers:External pre stressed member :the concrete memberswhich are pre stressed by external reactions given bythe rigid abutments are termed as externally prestressed in this case the pre stress can either beapplied by compressing the members by jacking themagainst the abutments rather than providing tendons
Internally pre stressed members
: the concretemembers which are pre stressed by providing thetension tendons are termed as internally pre stressedmembers .in this case ,the pre stressing is carried out by the expanding cements. the existing space betweenthe edge of the beam and the abutment is filled withconcrete using expanding cement .the beam iseffected by compression after the expansion of cement.
Linear pre stressing member
: the linear prestressing is mostly applicable for straight memberssuch as beams and slabs etc.
Pre-tensioning and post tensioning
: the tendons aretensioned even even before casting the concrete oneend of the reinforcement is secured to the abutmentwhile the other end of the reinforcement by using a jack and this end is fixed to another abutment. Theconcrete is now poured, after the concrete is curedand hardened, the ends of the reinforcement arereleased from the abutments. The reinforcementwhich tend to resume its original length will compressthe concrete surrounding it by bond action. The prestress is thus transmitted to concrete entirely by theaction of bond between the reinforcement and thesurrounding concrete.
A post-tensioned member
is one in which thereinforcement is tensioned after the concrete has fullyhardened. The beam is first cast leaving ducts for placing the tendons the ducts are made in number of ways by leaving the corrugated steel tubes in theconcrete by providing steel spirals, sheet metaltubing, rubber hose or any other duct forming unit inthe frame work when the concrete has hardened anddeveloped its strength, the tendon is passed throughthe duct one end is provided with the anchor and isfixed to one end of the member. Now the other end of the tendon is pulled by a jack which is butting against the end of the member .the jack simultaneously pulls the tendon and compressthe concrete. After the tendon is subjected to thedesired stress, this end of the tendon is also properlyanchored to the concrete. To avoid the crushing of concrete due to excessive bearing stressA distribution plate is provided at each end.
System of pre stressing
: a system of pre stressingmeans that actual process adopted in making a prestressed beam a system of pre stressing involves the process of tensioning the tendons and securing themfirmly to the concrete. Some of the systemscommonly followed are described below.
Pre tensioning system
The simplest method of making a pre-tensioned member is to pull the tendon between abutments or bulk-heads which are securedfreely or anchored firmly against the ends of thestressing bed. The tendons are cut off at each endafter the concrete hardens. Now the prestress istransferred to the concrete. The bulkhead at the endsand the bed should be designed to resist the pre-stressand the eccentricity.
: the hoyer system is usually adoptedfor the production of pre-tensioned members on alarge-scale. This method consists of first stretchingthe wires between two bulkheads at a large distance part. The concrete is now poured so that a number of beams can be produced in one line, by providingsuitable shuttering between them. After the concretehas hardened the wires are released from bulkheads.the wires between the different units in one line beams will also be cut off. The pre stress istransferred to the concrete through bond between thetendons and concrete.There are similar systems based on the above principle. These systems are put to use for usually pre-cast beams. Pre-tensioning system was widelyused in earlier days but has since been replaced by post-tensioning system .pre-tensioning systems arefound uneconomical for large spans.In order to grip the pre-tensioned wires properly to bulkheads the devices shown in are followed.
the basic principle in all post-tensioning systems is to introduce prestresses inthe concrete member cast previously by tightening thetendons accommodated in the ducts which are formedwhile casting the beam. As the tendons are pulledusing a jack against the end of the concrete member ,the desired prestresses force is obtained. After thewires are pulled they are anchored in their stretched position against the end of concrete member by asuitable wedging device. The various systemsfollowed differ in arrangement of wires in the processof jacking and in the anchorage devices in order toensure correct prestress in the reinforcement it is preferable to measure the load applied by the jack aswell as the consequent extension of the reinforcement