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Classification of Pre Stressed Concrete Members

Classification of Pre Stressed Concrete Members

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Published by Vamsi Vuddaraju
classification of free stress
classification of free stress

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Published by: Vamsi Vuddaraju on Jul 14, 2013
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Classification of pre stressed concrete mbers:External pre stressed member :the concrete memberswhich are pre stressed by external reactions given bythe rigid abutments are termed as externally prestressed in this case the pre stress can either beapplied by compressing the members by jacking themagainst the abutments rather than providing tendons
Internally pre stressed members
: the concretemembers which are pre stressed by providing thetension tendons are termed as internally pre stressedmembers .in this case ,the pre stressing is carried out by the expanding cements. the existing space betweenthe edge of the beam and the abutment is filled withconcrete using expanding cement .the beam iseffected by compression after the expansion of cement.
Linear pre stressing member
: the linear prestressing is mostly applicable for straight memberssuch as beams and slabs etc.
Pre-tensioning and post tensioning
: the tendons aretensioned even even before casting the concrete oneend of the reinforcement is secured to the abutmentwhile the other end of the reinforcement by using a jack and this end is fixed to another abutment. Theconcrete is now poured, after the concrete is curedand hardened, the ends of the reinforcement arereleased from the abutments. The reinforcementwhich tend to resume its original length will compressthe concrete surrounding it by bond action. The prestress is thus transmitted to concrete entirely by theaction of bond between the reinforcement and thesurrounding concrete.
A post-tensioned member
is one in which thereinforcement is tensioned after the concrete has fullyhardened. The beam is first cast leaving ducts for  placing the tendons the ducts are made in number of ways by leaving the corrugated steel tubes in theconcrete by providing steel spirals, sheet metaltubing, rubber hose or any other duct forming unit inthe frame work when the concrete has hardened anddeveloped its strength, the tendon is passed throughthe duct one end is provided with the anchor and isfixed to one end of the member. Now the other end of the tendon is pulled by a jack which is butting against the end of the member .the jack simultaneously pulls the tendon and compressthe concrete. After the tendon is subjected to thedesired stress, this end of the tendon is also properlyanchored to the concrete. To avoid the crushing of concrete due to excessive bearing stressA distribution plate is provided at each end.
System of pre stressing
: a system of pre stressingmeans that actual process adopted in making a prestressed beam a system of pre stressing involves the process of tensioning the tendons and securing themfirmly to the concrete. Some of the systemscommonly followed are described below.
Pre tensioning system
The simplest method of making a pre-tensioned member is to pull the tendon between abutments or bulk-heads which are securedfreely or anchored firmly against the ends of thestressing bed. The tendons are cut off at each endafter the concrete hardens. Now the prestress istransferred to the concrete. The bulkhead at the endsand the bed should be designed to resist the pre-stressand the eccentricity.
Hoyer system
: the hoyer system is usually adoptedfor the production of pre-tensioned members on alarge-scale. This method consists of first stretchingthe wires between two bulkheads at a large distance part. The concrete is now poured so that a number of  beams can be produced in one line, by providingsuitable shuttering between them. After the concretehas hardened the wires are released from bulkheads.the wires between the different units in one line beams will also be cut off. The pre stress istransferred to the concrete through bond between thetendons and concrete.There are similar systems based on the above principle. These systems are put to use for usually pre-cast beams. Pre-tensioning system was widelyused in earlier days but has since been replaced by post-tensioning system .pre-tensioning systems arefound uneconomical for large spans.In order to grip the pre-tensioned wires properly to bulkheads the devices shown in are followed.
Post-tensioning system:
the basic principle in all post-tensioning systems is to introduce prestresses inthe concrete member cast previously by tightening thetendons accommodated in the ducts which are formedwhile casting the beam. As the tendons are pulledusing a jack against the end of the concrete member ,the desired prestresses force is obtained. After thewires are pulled they are anchored in their stretched position against the end of concrete member by asuitable wedging device. The various systemsfollowed differ in arrangement of wires in the processof jacking and in the anchorage devices in order toensure correct prestress in the reinforcement it is preferable to measure the load applied by the jack aswell as the consequent extension of the reinforcement
.extension measure gives an idea how much of steel is being prestressed.Excessive bearing stresses will be produced at the endof the members due to the anchoring devices which bear against the concrete. In this part of the member itwill be necessary to provide additional reinforcementto prevent local splitting and failure by shear.A number of systems are available each protected bythe patent rights. The systems are adopted for linear  pre-stressing and with some of the commonlyfollowed systems of post tensioning are described below:
The freyssinet system :
the freyssinet system wasfirst to be introduced among the post-tensioningsystems. High tension steel wires 5mm to 8mmdiameter about 12 in number are arranged to form agroup cable with a spiral spring inside. The spiralspring provided the means for a power clearance between the wires and thus produce a channel whichcan be cement grouted. It further assists to transfer thereaction to concrete. The whole thing is enclosed in athin metal sheet.The anchorage consist of a cylinder of ordinary goodquality concrete and is powered with corrugation onthe outside. It has a central conical hole and is provided with heavy hoop reinforcement. Thesecylinders are kept in proper position and the conical plugs are pushed into the conical holes after thecables are tightened.the central hole passing axiallythrough the plug permits cement grout to be injectedthrough it. In this the space between the wires is filledwith the grout. this provides additional restraintagainst the slipping of tendons.
Advantages of the system
1. securing the wires is not expensive2. designed stretching force is obtained quickly.3. the plug may be left in the concrete and they donot project beyond the members.
Disadvantages of the system
All the wires of the cable are stretched together.hencethe stresses in the wire may not be exactly the same.The greatest stretching force applied to a cable isfrom 250kn to 500kn. This may not be sufficient.The jacks used are heavy and expensive.
The magnel blaton system
in this system a cable of rectangular section is provided, which contains layersof wires 5mm to 8mm diameter. The wires arearranged with four wires per layer. Up to sixteenlayers deep for a cable of sixty four wires. The wiresin the same layer and the wires in adjacent layers areseparated with a clearance of 4mm. the geometric pattern of the wires is maintained. In the same formthroughout the length of the cable vidlings grills or spacers at regular intervals the grills do not offer anyappreciable frictional resistance to the wires whichcan be moved relative to each other during tensioning process. The wires are anchored by wedging two at atime into sandwich plates are about 25mm thick andare provided with two wedge-shaped grooves on twofaces. The wires are taken two in each groove andtightened. Then a steel wedge is driven between thetightened wires to anchorage between them against a plate. A complete anchorage unit may consist of oneto eight sandwitch plates number of wires dependingupon the number of wires in the cable. Each plate cananchor eight wires. The various sandwich platesforming an unit are arranged one above the another against a distribution plate. The wires are tightened by jacking two wires at a time.
Gifford udall system
This method offers the following three
First method;
this is the earliest of the three methodsof this system.In this method the wired are stressed and anchoredone by one in separate cylinder using small wedginggrips called udall grips.Each grip consists of two half cones.the bearing plate bears against a thrust ring which is cast into theconcrete. The duct end is encircled into concrete by ahelix. Anchorages are supplied to suit cables of 2,4,6and 12 wires.
Second method
: in this method the wires areanchored by wedges which fit directly into taperedrecesses made in the bearing plate. The bearing plate bears against a tube unit containing the tube unit andhelix. This tube unit is cast into the concrete.Anchorages are supplied for cables of 8 to 12wiresthis arrangement is compact and minimizes thecongestion of the steel wires in the anchor block.
Third method
: in this method a tendon of 28mmdiameter type is used. This needs a duct of only40mm diameter. The tendon is stronger than sixteen6mm wires. The anchoring is done by 90mm diameter grip with a three segment interlocking wedge. Thismethod uses a barrel which bears directly against atube unit which bears directly against a tube unitwhich is cast into concrete.
Devices used for tensioning steel:
the variousdevices used for tensioning the steel are classified intothe following categories.
Mechanical devices:
the commonly used mechanicaldevices are as follows.
Weights with lever transmissionWeights without lever transmissionGeared transmission with pulley blocksScrew jack with gear drivesScrew jack with out gear drivesWire winding machineryThe mechanical devices are generally used for imparting pre stress in the concrete members whichare prepred in large amounts in big factories.
Hydraulic devices:
these types of devices include thehydraulic jacks used as a means of imparting prestress in concrete. Hydraulic jacks are the simplestand the most widely used devices for providing prestress of high magnitudes. Various hydraulic devicesare prepared by different scientists from which thecommonly used devices are as follows.a freyssinet system b magnel systemc Gifford systemd baur-leonhardt systeme lee mc call systemwhile pre stressing members with hydraulic devices.The applied force should be measured accuratelywhile tensioning the tendons. This can be achived providing pressure gauges with the jacks.
Electric devices :
this type of devices are usedcommonly for the tensioning of deformed bars andsteel wires. The method of pre-stressing involves theheating up of steel wires and anchoring them beforefilling the moulds with concrete. Due to the process of electric heating, this method of pre-stressing is knownas thermo electric pre-stressings.
Chemical substances :
chemical substances are alsoused for developing pre-stressing force in concretemember. The basic chemical substance used isexpansive cement. When expansive cement is used inconstructing, the tendons are subjected to tension andhence the concrete is subjected to compression. Theamount and rate of expansion is controlled the curingcontrolled by controlling curing.
Application of post-tensioning :
the suitability of  post-tensioning is good for medium and large span insitu work, where the cost of tensioning is very les.themajor advantage of post tensioning is that stopped off and curved cables is allowed by which the designer can easily differ the pressure distribution.long span bridge decks are also called fabricated by using post-tensioning.It is used to construct long span bridge structures.Concrete dams biological shields of nuclear reactorsand circular pre-stressing of large concrete tanks arestrengthinged by using post
Tendon solices
: tendons are splice in case of continous concrete member pre-stressed to gaincontunity. The various types of splices used astendons are screw connector, torpedo splices, clampedsplice and wrapped splice.Screw connectors are use to splice for high-tensile bars of large diameter,the ends are threaded. Thesplice is covered with sheet metal sheat and the screwthreaded connectors are not suitable for splicing prestrsssing steels which are heat-treated.The torpedo splice comprises of sleeve to protect theentire unit and the wires are secured by triple wedges.Cols-drawn wires are spliced largely by this type of splice.Clamp splices have nuts and bolts, and to use thetendons a series of clamp plates are provided in between them the use of the splices is in the locationwhere the tendon curvature the pre-stressing force,

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