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Multiplying by 2-Digit Numbers

# Multiplying by 2-Digit Numbers

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Comprehensive Teacher's Guide Grades 3-4, Lesson 3-6
Comprehensive Teacher's Guide Grades 3-4, Lesson 3-6

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10/23/2013

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F
rom their experience in the previous sections,students can multiply anynumber by a single-digit number.Soon,they will extend that thinking tomultiplying by two-digit numbers.But first,students need to learn how toextend their knowledge of basic facts to find products of,for example,30
ǂ
80.This ability allows students to estimate and to check the reasonable-ness of answers to examples such as 32
ǂ
81.(Note that this idea assumesthe ability to write a number from any place;that is,students should recog-nize how to write the numeral for 24 hundreds.) By continuing to explorethe physical model,students discover that 23
ǂ
45 is equal to 20
ǂ
45 + 3
ǂ
45,and the algorithm evolves naturally,with understanding.
®
Multiplying by Ten
Students may already have ways of multiplying by 10. At this point, they know that 12
ǂ
10 means that they should make 12 groups of 10. Then, fromtheir understanding of our number code, they know that they write 12 tens as120. To make this process explicit, have students form the 12 groups withblocks-of-10 and record the related number sentence. Ask students to follow a similar procedure for 8
ǂ
10 and 15
ǂ
What do you notice about these number sentences?
Have students discuss the results. Encourage them to use their own words toform a generalization. As one fourth grade student stated, “The digits are thesame. They just moved over once to the left.”Students who have already learned a “rule” for this may suggest that you justadd a zero at the end. While this works for whole numbers, such a rule canlead to confusion later when students work with decimal numbers. For example, 1.52
ǂ
10 is not 1.520. On the other hand, in line with the imageof digits being shifted one place to the left, 1.52
ǂ
10 does become 15.2.The blocks offer strong visual reinforcement for this shift. When we multiply a group of blocks by 10, the blocks are replaced with blocks one size larger,and on the Place mats, the Digit Flip Cards move one place to the left. So, for 14
ǂ
10, we start with 1 block-of-10 and 4 singles. After multiplying, we get1 block-of-100 and 4 blocks-of-10.Have the students predict the answers to 43
ǂ
10, 10
ǂ
10, and 236
ǂ
10, anddiscuss how they found their answers. Give particular attention to the factthat 10 tens is 100, as they know from making a block-of-100.
3-6
Multiplying by Two-Digit Numbers
3-6
Focus
Extending ideas to two-digit multipliers

96
3-6 3-6
Once students have had some experience withthe simple process of multiplying any number by 10, they need to recognize that exactly thesame method works for multiplying10 by any number. This is an opportunity to explorethe “order property” of multiplication, or the idea that changing the order of the factorsdoes not change the product.Ask students to model 10
ǂ
37 with theblocks. Some may immediately recognize(through the order property) that 10
ǂ
37 isthe same as 37 tens. This relationship may not be obvious to others, who will build 10groups of 37, then combine and pack them.They will discover that the result gives themthe same digits, 3 and 7, but shifted one place to the left (370). Ask,
Why do you think this happened?
Provide time for students to discuss their ideas. To encourage generalization, ask,
What is 10
ǂ
45? 45
ǂ
10? 10
ǂ
150? 150
ǂ
10?
Students should be able to generalize, in their own words:
Whether we multiplyany number by 10 or 10 by any number, the result is a number with the exact same dig-its, only shifted one place to the left
. You may want to extend this idea to multiplying by 100. Again, our base tennumber system makes this simple. When we multiply a number by 100, theresult is a number with the exact same digits, only shifted
two
places to the left.
®
Multiplying by Multiples of Ten
Have students find 20
ǂ
3. Some students may model 20 groups of 3 andothers, 3 groups of 20. Encourage students to share their techniques, decide which is easier, and write the corresponding number sentence. Then ask,
How is this like 2
ǂ
3?
(2
ǂ
3 = 6 and 20
ǂ
3 = 60. The digit 6 is shifted to theleft because we multiplied by 2 tens.) Encourage the students to apply this thinking to other examples. Ask,
ǂ
6? 40
ǂ
7?
To extend students’ thinking further, present 2
ǂ
36. When students agreethat the product is 72, ask them,
How can you use this example to predict the product of 20
ǂ
36?
When we multiply by 10 (14
ǂ
10),each block is replaced witha block that’s one size larger.

97
Continue with other examples. Ask students to explain their thinking. Helpthem to generalize that they can multiply as if by ones, then shift the digitsone place to the left.Finally, ask students how they can find 30
ǂ
80. Some students may suggestmultiplying 3
ǂ
80 and then shifting the digits. Others may suggest using thebasic fact 3
ǂ
8 and shifting the digits two places to the left, once for each ten. Be sure students connect this to the fact that 10
ǂ
10 = 100.Again, you may want to extend these ideas to multiples of 100. The next stepis learning how to multiply by any two-digit number.
®
Modeling Multiplication of Two-Digit Numbers
Once students understand how to multiply by 10, 20, 30 and so on, they candiscover a techinque that helps them multiply any two-digit numbers. Thistechnique is based on knowing the “distributive property” of multiplication,an idea they encountered when multiplying with single blocks in section 3-2.According to this property, 12
ǂ
16 = (10
ǂ
16) + (2
ǂ
16). Students can discover this property, and its usefulness, when asked to model the example with blocks.Ask students to show the number of single blocks in 12 groups of 16. They may  work together to do this. Before they pack, ask,
What is a way we could count some of these blocks without packing?
If no one suggests counting 10 groups of 16, ask,
Would finding 10 groups of 16 help us? Why? Where are 10 groups of 16 in this model?What number do these blocks show?
(160)Have students separate the 10 groups and ask,
How many groups of 16 are left?
(2)
What number do these blocks show?
(32)
How can we find the answer without packing?
(32 + 160)Next present the example 14
ǂ
If you were going to show this with blocks, what would you do?
(make 14 groups of 57)
Is there an easy way you could count the blocks?
(find 10
ǂ
57 and 4
ǂ
57 and addthe results)Repeat for 24
ǂ
35. Some students may suggest finding 10
ǂ
35 twice andthen 4 more groups of 35, and this is fine. Repeat with additional examples.Over time, if no one suggests counting, for example, 20 groups of 35, youmight wonder aloud about doing so.
3-6 3-6