Continue with other examples. Ask students to explain their thinking. Helpthem to generalize that they can multiply as if by ones, then shift the digitsone place to the left.Finally, ask students how they can find 30
80. Some students may suggestmultiplying 3
80 and then shifting the digits. Others may suggest using thebasic fact 3
8 and shifting the digits two places to the left, once for each ten. Be sure students connect this to the fact that 10
10 = 100.Again, you may want to extend these ideas to multiples of 100. The next stepis learning how to multiply by any two-digit number.
Modeling Multiplication of Two-Digit Numbers
Once students understand how to multiply by 10, 20, 30 and so on, they candiscover a techinque that helps them multiply any two-digit numbers. Thistechnique is based on knowing the “distributive property” of multiplication,an idea they encountered when multiplying with single blocks in section 3-2.According to this property, 12
16 = (10
16) + (2
16). Students can discover this property, and its usefulness, when asked to model the example with blocks.Ask students to show the number of single blocks in 12 groups of 16. They may work together to do this. Before they pack, ask,
What is a way we could count some of these blocks without packing?
If no one suggests counting 10 groups of 16, ask,
Would finding 10 groups of 16 help us? Why? Where are 10 groups of 16 in this model?What number do these blocks show?
(160)Have students separate the 10 groups and ask,
How many groups of 16 are left?
What number do these blocks show?
How can we find the answer without packing?
(32 + 160)Next present the example 14
If you were going to show this with blocks, what would you do?
(make 14 groups of 57)
Is there an easy way you could count the blocks?
57 and 4
57 and addthe results)Repeat for 24
35. Some students may suggest finding 10
35 twice andthen 4 more groups of 35, and this is fine. Repeat with additional examples.Over time, if no one suggests counting, for example, 20 groups of 35, youmight wonder aloud about doing so.