©Prepared By Mohammad Abdullah Shah Bukhari MBA Session 2010-12 Institute Of Management Sciences University Of Baluchistan Quetta Pakistan
through consultation and negotiation, and as a means of creating order out of diversity whileavoiding abuses. As Adolf Berle wrote in 1969 (p.562-3):Potentially Unethical Political Strategies and Tactics (Adapted from Dubrin p.203-4, 227-8) anytechnique of gaining power can be unethical if practiced in the extreme and with negativeintentions. For example, a person who supports a boss by feeding him or her insider informationthat could affect the price of company stock is being unethical.Pfeffer (1992, p.30) defined politics as the processes, the actions, the behaviors through which potential power is utilized and realized.Another author (Dubrin, 2001, p.192) defined organizational politics as informal approaches togaining power through means other than merit or luck. It could be argued that politics are used primarily to achieve power, either directly or indirectly, e.g., by being promoted, receiving a larger budget or other resources, or gaining desirable assignments.Factor Contributing to Political Behavior in Organizations (Morgan, 1986, p.142) it is useful toremember that in its original meaning, the idea of politics stems from the view that, whereinterests are divergent, society should provide a means of allowing individuals to reconcile their differences through consultation and negotiation.(Morgan, p.148) An organization's politics is most clearly manifested in the conflicts and power plays that sometimes occupy center stage, and in the countless interpersonal intrigues that providediversions in the flow of organizational activity. Politics occurs on an ongoing basis, often in away that is invisible to all but those directly involved.(Morgan, p.155) As Scottish sociologist Tom Burns has pointed out, most modern organizations promote various kinds of political behavior because they are designed as systems of simultaneouscompetition and collaboration. People must collaborate in pursuit of a common task, yet are often pitted against each other in competition for limited resources, status, and career advancement..(Adapted from Morgan, p.195-8) There is a danger when becoming sensitized to political behavior that one begins to see everything as political, to develop a Machiavellian interpretationthat suggests that everyone is trying to outwit and outmaneuver everyone else. Rather than use politics to generate new insights and understandings that can help deal with divergent interests.Exercising Control over Dysfunctional Politics (Loosely based on Culbert & McDonough, 1985;Dubrin, 2001, and Pettigrew, 2003) although necessary, organizational politics can hurt anorganization and its members when carried to excess. Too much politicking can result in lower morale, higher turnover, and wasted time and effort, thereby lowering performance. To avoidthese negative consequences, leaders should combat political behavior when it is excessive anddysfunctional.(Adapted from Morgan, p.194-5) After reflecting on the realities of political dynamics and behaviors in organizations, it seems appropriate to reevaluate the myth of a highly rational,objective, non-political organization. The idea of rationality seems to be invoked to overcome thecontradictions inherent in the fact that an organization is simultaneously a system of competitionand a system of cooperation. An emphasis on rationality could lead us to construct an organizationthat does not manage the diversity of interests present and, therefore, is ineffective and unstable.
3. Research Variables
Research conducted on the basis of organizational politics and psychological health relation.
Research determined the impact of organizational politics on employee’s’ psychological health.