nation faces in order to secure reliable and affordable energy supply (Cooke, 2005). By largelyfocusing on energy sources such as fossil fuels and biofuels, not only does the Act fail to addressshort-term issues, but it also fails to tie energy supply to climate change and food security, issuesthat are now adding pressure to the world’s economic problems (Associated Press, 2007;Hanson, 2008). In effect, the Act failed to provide a focused strategy that would lead the U.S.towards energy security and a strong, low-carbon economy.
Important Provisions of the Act
In order to achieve energy security and create jobs in the U.S., the Act sets forth a longlist of provisions in the areas of energy efficiency, fossil fuels, nuclear energy, renewable energy,vehicle technologies, and electricity markets. While several agencies, ranging from theEnvironmental Protection Agency to the Bureau of Land Management, are responsible for implementing specific provisions of the Act, most of the responsibility lies with the Departmentof Energy, as is explicitly mentioned in the Act (109
Congress, 2005). Nearly all provisions not pertaining to the Department of Energy are not specifically related to the goal of this bill.Instead, they focus on issues like Indian energy programs, demonstration projects, land leases,and other provisions for special interests. The table below summarizes the key provisions for each area that pertain directly to the Department of Energy (Library of Congress, 2005).
Table 1. Key Provisions of The Energy Policy Act of 2005EnergyEfficiency
Improve energy efficiency and conservation across the nation throughfederal and state programs, energy assistance, research and development,energy efficient products, and public housing programs.
Provide subsidies, tax breaks, and research and development, and projectfunding for unconventional and conventional fossil fuels, as well as cleancoal projects.
Approve, supervise, and provide loans for new nuclear power projects, aswell as funding for research and development.
Help deploy renewable energy technologies through tax credits and